A Retro-Review of the 1910s (the 1914-1919 edition)

By Tom Ruane

This article is a continuation of the Retro-Review articles. As with the other pieces, this is not intended to be a proper history of the decade. Instead, each review is a collection of things that interested me while I was helping to proof the box scores for that year and generate the html files for our web-site.

In addition, from time to time I will be focusing on a few of the statistical discrepancies from these years. These are cases where the data being displayed on Retrosheet's web-site differs from either the current official statistics or what was considered official at the time. In many cases, it is unclear which version is correct, but in many others the official view is pretty obviously wrong and at some point ought to be corrected.

Of course, like the earlier article, this one would not have been possible without the work of dozens of Retrosheet volunteers who are working on digitizing the major league boxscores for the 1910s.

Similar articles on the 1920s, 1930s, 1940s, 1950s and 1960s (at least 1960 to 1967) are also available on our web-site.


At the end of play on June 8th, the Boston Braves were in last place. And they were a very bad last place team, on a pace to lose 108 games. They were so bad that, despite going 14-12 over their next 26 games, the team would still be five games behind the seventh-place Philadelphia Phillies, a distance almost as great as that between the Phillies and the second-place Chicago Cubs. But starting on July 5th, they began what would be commonly referred to as a miracle, finishing the season on a 68-19 run. On July 19th, they finally climbed out of last place. Two days later, they were in the first division to stay. On August 10th, they leap-frogged over both the Cubs and the St. Louis Cards to land in second-place and by August 23rd, they were tied for the top spot with the Giants. While they had been going 33-8 since July 5th, New York had been heading in the opposite direction, going 19-24 over the same span, including eight losses in their last nine games, closing what had been a fifteen game gap between the two teams in a little more than a month and a half.

The teams treaded water over the next two weeks, and by the time the Giants headed into Boston for a double-header on September 7th, the teams were still tied at the top of the league. Approximately 74,000 fans saw the two contests, or more than half of the Braves' total attendance for either 1911 or 1912, and they were rewarded in the opener as Christy Mathewson lost a 4-3 lead and the game in the bottom of the ninth when George Burns failed to catch or corral a ball hit by Johnny Evers with one out and men on second and third.1

New York recovered to take the nightcap 10-1 before Boston took the rubber game of the series 8-3, as Bill James pitched his twelfth straight complete game, eleven of them victories, and Rube Marquard lasted only four innings to take his ninth consecutive loss, a streak that would reach twelve and be part of a 3-18 three-month run for the pitcher who had won nineteen consecutive games only two years earlier. The return match, scheduled for the Polo Grounds the last week of the season, turned out to be anticlimactic when the Braves went 19-3 over the rest of their home-stand, finishing up with a four-game sweep of the Cubs that clinched the pennant.2

The Braves' surge was led by their pitching. Here are the records of their three primary starting pitchers before and after July 5th:

                 G  GS  CG SHO  IP     H   R  ER  BB  SO   W   L   ERA
Bill James      19  13   9   0 118.2  99  40  33  49  49   7   6  2.50
Dick Rudolph    18  15  12   0 134.0 132  55  48  39  49   6   8  3.22
Lefty Tyler     16  13   8   0 108.1 113  64  46  51  61   5   8  3.82

                 G  GS  CG SHO  IP     H   R  ER  BB  SO   W   L   ERA
Bill James      27  24  21   4 214.2 162  51  37  69 107  19   1  1.55
Dick Rudolph    24  21  19   6 201.0 156  50  40  22  89  20   2  1.79
Lefty Tyler     22  21  13   5 162.1 134  49  35  50  79  11   5  1.94

In A Game of Inches, Peter Morris suggests that one of the reasons for their success was a new pitch, the Emory Ball, taught to them by manager George Stallings (who, in turn, had learned it from Russ Ford). And while that may be true, they also dramatically improved their offense as well. Here are the runs scored and allowed during the two periods:

                 RS     RA
Before         3.55   4.22
After          4.60   2.91
Change        +1.05  -1.29

The Braves' offense was helped by a strong second half by Les Mann, the addition of Ted Cather and Possum Whitted, who both came over in a June trade with the Cardinals, and Red Smith, who was purchased from Brooklyn on August 10th and hit .314 (with an OPS of .850) the rest of the way.

Things were less dramatic over in the American League. The Philadelphia Athletics, the defending champion, kept the race interesting through the early-going, but then went on a 39-6 hot streak, ending with their 16-3 win over the Indians on September 1st, that took all the mystery out of the pennant race. They next headed into Boston, where they were swept by the second-place Red Sox in four straight games, but that hardly mattered. They still had more than an eight-game lead.

They had the best offense in the league, and it wasn't even close, as they scored nearly a run a game more than the second-best team. They were led by Eddie Collins and Home Run Baker, their future Hall of Fame infielders, but they had good players at each position and only one of their regulars was over thirty. Their pitching staff was also one of the best in the league (the top three teams were all within twenty runs allowed of each other) and, other than Eddie Plank (39 years old) and Chief Bender (30 years old), the remaining five pitchers with ten or more wins that year were all under twenty-four.

They were young, good (having just won their fourth pennant in five years) and confident heading into the World Series that year. After all, the American League had won the previous four Fall Classics, while their opponent was only two years removed from four straight last-place finishes. So of course the Athletics were swept.

Bill James and Dick Rudolph, who, as we've seen above, had finished on a 39-3 run, won all four of the games, allowing only two runs (one earned) in 29 innings. Catcher Hank Gowdy hit .545 in the series, scoring or knocking in five runs, or only one fewer than the entire Athletics team. With the exception of the first contest, the games were all close, and the middle two were decided in the last inning, the first when Les Mann knocked in the winning run in the top of the ninth, and the second when he scored in the bottom of the twelfth on an error by Bullet Joe Bush.

There was another major league in 1914, the Federal League, and while they might not have been the most talented of the three leagues,3 they did stage the closest pennant race. The Indianapolis Hoosiers and the Chicago Whales (or the Tinkers as they were often known, after Joe Tinker, their manager) were separated by no more than a game or two most of the summer, while the early season leader, the Baltimore Terrapins, was never far behind. Chicago, led by Claude Hendrix, the best pitcher in the league, as well as by catcher Art Wilson and home run leader Dutch Zwilling, seemed to have the upper hand with a two-game lead on October 3rd.

But the next day, the Whales lost all but a half-game of their lead, dropping a 1-0 battle of three-hitters to Doc Watson (who had been released by Chicago a month earlier) and the St. Louis Terriers, while the Hoosiers were sweeping a double-header from the Kansas City Packers, the first game a thrilling 6-5 extra-inning win that saw Indianpolis blow a 4-1 ninth-inning lead before rallying to win in the bottom of the tenth, and the second, an anticlimactic affair called in the middle of the fifth due to darkness. Two days later, Chicago's lead was gone (and then some) when they dropped a double-header to the Packers, the first another 1-0 defeat, this one costing Claude Hendrix his thirtieth win of the season, while the Hoosiers were beating the Terriers. The end came the next day when Indianapolis' ace Cy Falkenberg threw a three-hit shutout for his league-leading ninth shutout of the season and twenty-sixth win of the season.

Well, the end for Indianapolis fans actually came the next day, a 4-2 win over St. Louis. Katsy Keifer went the distance for the Hoosiers, allowing six hits to go with the two runs. It was the first and last game of his major league career and the last one also for the good people of Indianapolis, who would see their franchise move to Newark in time for the 1915 season.

Two players collected their 3000th hit in 1914, Honus Wagner on June 28th and Nap Lajoie on September 27th (joining only Cap Anson in this exclusive club), but hitting highlights were otherwise scarce that year. Ed Lennox hit for the cycle on May 6th (with an extra home run thrown in for good measure). It was the only one of the season and would also be the only one in the short history of the Federal League. For Lennox the game was part of stretch in which he would hit six home runs in six games.

Max Carey had the biggest single day at the plate when he collected eight hits, scored seven runs and knocked in another six in the Pirates' double-header sweep of the Cardinals on September 3rd. He entered the game hitting only .227 and didn't do much better after his big day. The St. Louis park was probably not a factor. In his other ten games that year at Robison Field, Carey managed only five singles in forty at-bats.

Washington Senators shortstop George McBride set a record in 1914 for the lowest slugging percentage (.243) among players appearing in at least 150 games. And it might have been even worse. According to our research, McBride actually had two more at-bats that season, lowering his mark by a point. One odd thing is that he batted seventh most of the year, ahead of an even weaker hitter. When he played, catcher Joe Henry usually followed McBride in the lineup, and finished the season with a .226 slugging percentage, although without enough games played to qualify for the record.

This record would be later broken by Hal Lanier in 1968 (.239) and Dal Maxvill in 1970 (.223). Of course, requiring 150 games played eliminates a lot of regulars from consideration (not to mention almost the entirety of the 19th century). For example, Joe Gerhardt played every one of the New York Giants 112 games in 1885 and ended the season with a .195 slugging percentage. And there are other examples from even earlier, including Will White, who appeared in more than 90% of the games for the Cincinnati Reds in 1878 and 1879 (albeit as a pitcher) and posted slugging percentages of .157 and .156.

Here are the teams with the weakest hitters (in terms of OPS) in each spot in the batting order (along with the player with the most plate appearances there) from 1914 to the present:

    Year Team    AB   H  2B  3B  HR  BB HBP   AVG   OBP   SLG   OPS  Player           Pos
1st 1969 SD  N  675 132  23   3   3  35   3  .196  .237  .252  .489  Jose Arcia       2B/SS
2nd 1916 BOS A  591 115  15   5   0  38  15  .195  .261  .237  .498  Jack Barry       2B
3rd 1917 NY  A  584 121   8   5   0  70   1  .207  .293  .238  .531  Fritz Maisel     2B
4th 1992 CAL A  640 128  19   1  16  29   4  .200  .237  .308  .545  Hubie Brooks     DH
5th 1988 STL N  639 136  23   1   7  40   3  .213  .260  .285  .545  Terry Pendleton  3B
6th 1967 CHI A  599 115  17   2   4  42   6  .192  .250  .247  .497  Ken Berry        OF
7th 1914 WAS A  537  96  12   6   1  42   7  .179  .247  .229  .476  George McBride   SS
8th 1918 PHI N  432  81   5   1   0  35   2  .188  .252  .204  .455  Bert Adams       C
9th 1964 HOU N  517  59   7   1   1  28   4  .114  .165  .137  .303  Ken Johnson      P

I'm sure this list will look quite a bit different once we include the rest of the Dead Ball Era, but I was still surprised at the number of post-expansion teams on the list. Two of those, however, were from the second Dead Ball Era.

And although it doesn't have anything to do with 1914, I suppose I ought to show the list of the teams with the highest OPSs by lineup spot:

    Year Team    AB   H  2B  3B  HR  BB HBP   AVG   OBP   SLG   OPS  Player           Pos
1st 1996 BAL A  667 192  42   3  45  98  18  .288  .390  .562  .953  Brady Anderson   CF
2nd 1999 NY  A  651 233  43   9  28  94  10  .358  .443  .581 1.024  Derek Jeter      SS
3rd 1921 NY  A  552 208  45  17  60 144   4  .377  .509  .846 1.355  Babe Ruth        LF
4th 2004 SF  N  484 175  39   3  48 233   9  .362  .571  .752 1.323  Barry Bonds      LF
5th 1932 PHI A  588 214  33   9  58 117   0  .364  .470  .747 1.216  Jimmie Foxx      1B
6th 1995 CLE A  516 170  37   1  31  98   8  .329  .443  .585 1.028  Jim Thome        3B
7th 2003 ATL N  613 189  41   6  36  45   5  .308  .359  .571  .930  Vinny Castilla   3B
8th 1995 CLE A  511 148  26   1  27  66   2  .290  .369  .503  .872  Paul Sorrento    1B
9th 1994 CLE A  412 132  25   2  16  28   1  .320  .364  .507  .872  Alvaro Espinoso  IF

Although Vinny Castilla and Alvaro Espinoso have the most plate appearances in the slots above for the Braves and Indians, the teams owe their spot on the list to the other players who appeared there, in particular, Javy Lopez for the 2003 Braves and Sandy Alomar for the 1994 Indians.

But I digress.

On the mound, one of the highlights of the year was the performance of Dutch Leonard, who posted a 0.96 ERA, the lowest in major league history among qualifying pitchers.4 He pitched in rough luck early, losing his first two decisions by 1-0 scores and getting a no-decision in a thirteen inning 1-1 game. Only one of those three runs were earned, giving him a 0.32 ERA to go with his 0-2 record. But with better run support behind him, he went on to win seventeen of his next eighteen decisions, although given that he allowed as many as four runs in a game only twice all season, he didn't need many runs to work with.

Red Sox teammate Rube Foster was also hard to score upon in 1914, especially in May, when he held opponents scoreless for 42 consecutive innings. His performance included two-hit, three-hit and four-hit shutouts. It was broken by a pair of unearned runs on May 26th and he went 51 innings before an earned run was scored against him on June 2nd.

The Philadelphia Phillies enjoyed hitting in the home park. They hit 50 of their 62 home runs there, including all of Gavvy Cravath's league-leading nineteen homers. Of course, Gavvy's teammates also benefited from the Baker Bowl. Here are Sherry Magee's home and road splits that year:

        G  AB   R   H  2B  3B  HR  BB  SO HBP  SH  SB   AVG   OBP   SLG
Home   78 291  61 107  28   5  12  31  17   2   6  15  .368  .432  .622
Away   68 252  35  64  11   6   3  24  25   1   7  10  .254  .321  .381

But Pete Alexander enjoyed pitching there as well. Here are his splits:

             G  GS  CG SHO  IP     H   R  ER  BB  SO   W   L   ERA
Home        26  23  21   5 214.2 173  57  44  46 134  20   4  1.84
Away        20  16  11   1 139   154  76  50  30  80   7  11  3.24

No pitcher has won more than eighteen games at home or away since. The last pitchers to do that are Juan Marichal in 1968 (who went 18-4 on the road), and Lefty Gomez in 1934 (who went 18-2 at home).

Iron Davis was one of the more obscure pitchers for the Braves in 1914, but on September 9th, he pitched one of their best games, a no-hitter, to win only his second major league game, and his first since 1912. It would be his only shutout in the majors, and he would finish his career a little more than a year later by pitching a twenty-four hitter against the Giants to close out the 1915 season.

The Pittsburgh Rebels' George LeClair had a rough time in his second major league start, going the distance in a 21-6 loss on August 16. Manager Rebel Oakes wasn't in a rescuing mood that afternoon, letting his rookie complete the game despite allowing ten runs in the last inning. He would finish the year strong, however, allowing only ten hits in his last three complete games, including a six-inning one-hitter in his last game.

Another rookie who had trouble getting his career started was Guy Morton, who lost his first thirteen decisions for the last place Cleveland Naps before finally winning his last game of the season on September 27th. Despite his rocky introduction to the major leagues, he would have a winning record (97-73) over the rest of his eleven-year major league career.

Christy Mathewson's career hit its high-water mark with his win over the Pirates on July 25th. The win left him with a 18-4 mark for the season and gave him a career mark of 355-161. He would go 18-27 over the rest of his career and no pitcher has been that far above .500 since.

Despite his very different won-lost record, Rube Marquard pitched almost as well as his teammate in 1914. The difference was that Marquard, unlike Mathewson or 26-game winner Jeff Tesreau, seldom saw any evidence that he was pitching for the league's best hitting team. From June 27th to September 23rd, while his record was going from 7-4 to 10-22, the Giants scored less than two runs a start for Marquard. Here is his record both before and during that stretch:

             G  GS  CG SHO  IP     H   R  ER  BB  SO   W   L   ERA
Before      14  11   8   3 101    95  41  35  13  43   7   4  3.12
During      22  20   5   0 150.2 152  70  52  29  43   3  18  3.11

Walter Johnson was still the best pitcher in baseball in 1914, leading his league in wins, shutouts and strikeouts, but he set an unenviable record on September 21st when he threw four wild pitches in the fourth inning of his thirteen-inning 6-1 win over the White Sox. While Bert Cunningham had thrown five wild pitches in an inning while pitching for the Buffalo Bisons of the Players League in 1890, this was the first time anyone had thrown as many as four in one stanza since the pitching distance was increased in 1893.

Or that's what the record books would have had us believe5, at least until noted baseball researcher Trent McCotter discovered that while Johnson was charged with four wild pitches in that game, they did not all occur in the fourth inning.6 It appears that there were at most two (and probably only one) in that frame, and that the first modern four wild pitch inning didn't actually occur until Phil Niekro turned the trick in the second inning of a game on August 4, 1979.

Rookie pitcher Rankin Johnson made only thirteen starts for the Red Sox, but five came against the Senators and in each of those games he was opposed by Walter Johnson. All five of the games ended in shutouts, three of them 1-0 affairs. Walter won three of the five games, but for a brief time the surprisingly competitive Johnson-versus-Johnson affairs caught the attention of the baseball world. A little more than three months after it started, however, Rankin was traded to the Indians, whereupon he jumped to the Federal League and managed to avoid facing Walter Johnson ever again.

Two rookies of note appeared for the Red Sox that summer. On July 11th, Babe Ruth's name appeared in a major league box score for the first time when he helped pitch Boston to a 4-3 victory over Cleveland. He went hitless in two at-bats, one of them a strikeout, before being removed for pinch-hitter Duffy Lewis in the bottom of the seventh inning. Three days later, Ernie Shore overshadowed Ruth's debut by pitching a two-hitter in his inaugural game for Boston. Two years earlier, he had made one unforgettable appearance with the Giants, getting retroactive credit for perhaps the worst save in major league history, as he turned a 21-2 lead into a 21-12 victory.

The marathon of the year took place on July 17th when the Giants beat the Pirates 3-1 on Larry Doyle's two-run homer in the top of the twenty-first inning. Previously, the record for the latest home run in a game had been held by Providence's (not quite so) Old Hoss Radbourn, who homered in the bottom of the eighteenth inning to beat Detroit 1-0 on August 17, 1882. Radbourn, who won 33 games as a pitcher that year and would win 59 games two years later, was playing right-field that day. It was his first major league home run and one of only nine he would hit in his career. Doyle's record would stand until Jack Reed homered in the twenty-second inning on June 24, 1962. Doyle hit his homer off of Babe Adams, who set a record by pitching all twenty-one innings without issuing a walk. After going the distance in that game, Adams wouldn't get out of the fifth inning in any of his next three starts.

The wildest game of the year was probably the one held between the Brooklyn Tip-Tops and the St. Louis Terriers on June 16th. Tied at five in the top of the twelfth inning, Brooklyn scored seven runs only to have St. Louis come back to win with eight in the bottom half. The fifteen combined runs is the record for an extra-inning. The beneficiary of the comeback was relief pitcher/manager Mordecai Brown, who probably didn't expect the win after giving up those seven runs.

On opening day, the Reds scored ten runs without one of them being driven in by a hit. The runs were the result of five wild pitches, three sacrifice flies, a bases-loaded walk and a ground-out. How unusual is that? Well, Retrosheet has currently released play-by-play data for 134,291 games (the earliest is from 1911 and the collection is complete from 1951 to 2013). Of those games, there have been two instances where a team has scored ten runs without the benefit of a hit. The White Sox on April 22, 1959 and the Expos on June 8, 1973. But those weren't the only runs scored by those teams. The most runs a team has scored without any being the result of a hit in our collection is six, the last time by the Yankees on September 28, 2010.

The Tigers and Browns set the record for the fewest combined hits in a double-header when they managed only eleven on May 30th. Ty Cobb was out of the lineup, courtesy of a fractured rib caused by a Rube Foster pitch twelve days earlier,7 and only Tillie Walker managed to get a hit in each game. For Walker, the games were part of a season-high 27-game hitting streak. The fewest hits in a double-header since then has been thirteen, done three times, the last being in an Expos-Cards twin-bill on September 29, 1987.

And it wasn't an official statistic so no one noticed, but on July 3rd the Yankees and the A's played a double-header without an RBI. The only runs in the first game scored on a pair of errors with two outs in the fourth, and the sole run of the second contest counted on a two-out error in the seventh. Since it became official in 1920, the fewest combined RBIs in a double-header have been two. It's happened eighteen times, most recently on October 3, 1976 in a season-ending double-header between the Cards and the Pirates.


Connie Mack didn't set out to dismantle his empire.8 He knew he couldn't afford to keep his entire squad intact, but felt that once he was done getting rid of a few players, he would still have a team that, if not a favorite to retain its title, would at least be able to contend. The pitchers were the first to go. Both Chief Bender and Eddie Plank had offers from the Federal League that Mack was unwilling to match, and when he couldn't find a team willing to give him anything for the rights to the two, he simply released them. And then in December, he sold his best player, Eddie Collins, to the White Sox for $50,000.

Still, the A's seemed to be stocked with good young pitchers as well as a (sort of) adequate replacement for Collins, especially if they could find a fountain of youth, in 40-year-old Nap Lajoie. Clearly, the team wouldn't be as good without Collins, but if the young pitchers continued to develop as their reached their prime years, things didn't look too bad. And then Home Run Baker, the team's best remaining player, refused to report and things went downhill from there.

The season started on a deceptively good note. Herb Pennock pitched a one-hit shutout over the Boston Red Sox on April 14th. He had a no-hitter with two outs in the ninth, when Harry Hooper reached on a slow-hit grounder to Lajoie.9 By the end of April, he would have three wins and a 2.73 ERA. But he would only pitch a combined eight innings in his next four starts and by early June, Mack had seen enough, waiving his young pitcher to Boston. And it wasn't only Pennock: the pitching collapse was widespread. Bullet Joe Bush, was winless with a 5.27 ERA heading into June. Rube Bressler was also looking for his first victory at the end of May, and his ERA was even worse (5.36).

I'm not sure if the weakened infield defense was to blame, but no one seemed to be able to throw strikes. The team set a record that still stands for the most walks allowed in a season, breaking the previous mark (set by the 1911 Browns) by more than 100. There were nine games in 1915 in which a team's pitchers walked a dozen or more batters and seven of those were courtesy of the A's. On June 23rd, Bruno Haas, making his major league debut, walked sixteen batters in a complete-game loss to the New York Yankees. It was a major league record (since tied by Tommy Byrne in 1951). Haas also threw three wild pitches. Undaunted, Mack started the young left-hander a week later and Haas responded by walking four more in a little more than an inning before being relieved.

Still, through the early going they weren't historically bad. On July 9th, they were in sixth place with a 28-44 record. But by now, the dismantling had begun in earnest. If the A's were going to be a second-division team, Mack figured that he might as well cash in his chips and start over. On June 28th, he sold Bob Shawkey, who was second on the staff with six wins, to the Yankees. Less than a week later, shortstop Jack Barry followed Pennock to Boston, and two weeks after that, right-fielder Eddie Murphy joined Collins in Chicago.

After that relative high-point on July 9th, the team lost 64 of their next 76 games. They didn't win back-to-back games again until the last day of the season, when they swept the Washington Senators in a double-header. Ironically, the season ended like it started, with another great pitching performance, this time by Elmer Myers, who allowed only two-hits in his major league debut, striking out what would turn out to be a career-high twelve batters.

The Boston Red Sox were poised to fill the power vacuum created by the demise of the Athletics, but first they had to beat off challenges from the White Sox and Tigers. Chicago led throughout much of the first half of the season, holding a six-game lead on July 1st. They were led by pitchers Jim Scott and Red Faber, who were a combined 25-6 with a 1.78 ERA up to that point, but the team faded down the stretch, despite the second-half additions of Eddie Murphy and Shoeless Joe Jackson, the latter obtained in an August 21st trade with the Indians.

As usual, Detroit's best player was Ty Cobb who didn't miss a game all season and led the league in runs, hits, batting average and on-base percentage. The Tigers were two games behind the Red Sox when they headed into Fenway Park for a critical four-game series that started on September 16th. They cut that lead in half by taking the opener, an exciting if somewhat one-sided 6-1 decision that featured Hooks Dauss' 23rd win of the season and Cobb tossing a bat at rookie relief-pitcher Carl Mays, who threw a ball close to the Tiger center-fielder's head.10

But that was as good as it got for the Tigers that year, as they dropped all three of the remaining games, including a thrilling twelve-inning pitchers duel between Harry Coveleski and Ernie Shore on the 18th that The Boston Daily Globe called the "Most Exciting Ball Game Boston Ever Has Seen" (pardon the capital letters, but the quote came from the headline on the first page of the newspaper).11

The game was scoreless in the top of the twelfth when Cobb led off with a double. Two batters later, the bases were loaded with no one out. Cobb was forced at home by Marty Kavanagh for the first out, and after the next batter hit into another force play at the plate, Kavanagh decided to head to third base on the play, passing fellow base-runner Sam Crawford in the process. The fans in the stands didn't quite understand what had heppened, but gathered from the Red Sox players heading in from the field that the scoring threat was over.

Boston started their own rally in the bottom half of the inning and with a man out and the bases loaded, Red Sox manager Bill Carrigan decided to pinch-hit himself for Shore (who was hitting .095 at the time). Carrigan hit a fast grounder to Detroit shortstop Donie Bush. A double-play would have sent the game into the thirteenth, but second baseman Ralph Young couldn't handle the ball and the winning run crossed the plate.

After that series, the rest of the race was anticlimactic. The end came for the Tigers on September 30th when they lost to Carl Weilman and the Browns 8-2. For Weilman, it was his eighth win of the year over Detroit. He went 10-18 against the rest of AL, including a 1-4 mark against the Red Sox. In a scheduling quirk, the Red Sox won the crown while in the midst of three straight scheduled off-days.

Over in the National League, it seemed for a while as if no one wanted to win the pennant. The Phillies started strong, winning eleven of their first twelve games, but then played under .500 ball for nearly fourth months. Despite that, they still somehow managed to stay in first place. On August 19th, their winning percentage of .5385 was the lowest for a league leader on any date after the beginning of July in major league history.12

They were led by ace right-hander Pete Alexander, in perhaps his best season. He pitched 376 1/3 innings, won thirty-one games, posted a career-best 1.22 ERA, and topped his league in just about every positive statistical category. His team would probably have spent most of the summer in the second-division were it not for him. For example, when he shut out the Cards on July 13th, raising his record to 17-3, the rest of his team was a combined 22-30. They were led at the plate by Gavvy Cravath, whose twenty-four home runs were the most since 1899, and in the field by Dave Bancroft, their slick-fielding rookie shortstop.

Toward the end of August, the Phillies got hot, opening up a four game lead, and then went into Brooklyn and proceeded to drop three straight. The first of these came at the expense of Alexander, whose control and defense failed him in the bottom of the eighth inning, leading to five runs and turning a 3-1 lead into a 6-3 defeat. The good news for Brooklyn is that they would climb within a game of the top before the series came to a close. The bad news was that Alexander was through losing games.

He blanked the Giants on three hits in his next start, and followed that with four more complete game wins before topping off his month by throwing a one-hitter to clinch the pennant against the formerly-Miracle Braves on September 29th. It was his twelfth shutout of the year (he pitched five other complete games that year without allowing an earned run) and it was also his record-setting fourth one-hitter.

The Robins, for their part, had faded down the stretch, going 10-13 after their sweep of Philadelphia, and eventually dropping into third place behind the Braves, who were discovering that miracles don't often have encores. Like 1914, Boston found themselves in last place in July, but this time it took them much longer to get going and as late as August 19th they still had a losing record.

The single biggest reason for their failure to repeat was the inability of Bill James to give a passable impersonation of himself. He struggled with arm trouble the entire season before finally calling it quits at the end of July with five wins. He was only 23-years-old, but his career was pretty much over. Still, a strong finish (and Brooklyn's slump) got them second-place money which, while it must have seemed pretty disappointing at the time, looked better and better with each passing year. The Braves would not finish as high as second again for 33 years.

For the second straight season, Boston beat Philadelphia to win the World Series. The teams were different, of course, but the cities remained the same. And the results were also similar, as the Red Sox won four straight games (this time, after an opening loss) to win an apparently uncompetitive series. But if the series wasn't close, the games certainly were. All but the first were won by a single run (including three straight by a 2-1 score) and except for game four, all were decided in the winning team's last at-bat.

There were plenty of heroes for the victors: Rube Foster pitched two complete game wins and even knocked in the winning run in one of them; Duffy Lewis knocked in important runs in three of the victories and corralled a long drive by Gavvy Cravath in the third game that could have given the Phillies a large early lead; Harry Hooper bounced two balls into the stands for home runs (by the rules of 1915) to help clinch the series; and both Ernie Shore and Dutch Leonard chipped in complete-game wins. So it is odd that the series is often remembered today only for an event that was completely inconsequential at the time: Babe Ruth's pinch-hit appearance in the opening game (he grounded out). He would play in another forty World Series games in his career, and nearly all of them were more memorable than his first.

In 1915, the Federal League went where no other third major league had gone before: into a second year. There had been one adjustment to the roster of teams, with pennant-winner Indianapolis shifting to Newark, but once again the Feds put on the best pennant race in the majors, one that involved three teams separated by only the narrowest of margins, and ended with some serious gamesmanship on the part of the league president and the eventual winner.

Of the contenders from the year before, only the Chicago Whales were a factor in 1915, and they were in fifth place as late as September 4th. But the next day, they began a 16-4 stretch that brought them within a game and a half of the first-place Pittsburgh Rebels and a game behind the St. Louis Terriers heading into the final three days of the season. The schedule called for Chicago to play three games in two days in Pittsburgh (a single game on Friday followed by a double-header on Saturday) before the two teams traveled to Chicago for a single game on Sunday that would conclude the season. And then the Friday game was rained out.

According to the rules of the other two major leagues, such a game would not have been made up, even though it had a bearing on the pennant race. But the Federal League had no such rule to govern such a situation, and so Whales owner Charles Weeghman was able to convince James Gilmore, the league president, to have the game made up as part of a Sunday double-header in Chicago.13 So instead of needing to win only one of the three remaining games to win the pennant, the Rebels had to split the four games. Which became significantly harder when they dropped both ends of the double-header on Saturday. St. Louis also lost, leaving the following situation at the end of the day:

Team           W    L    Pct   GB
Chicago       85   65   .567    -
St. Louis     85   66   .563  0.5
Pittsburgh    86   67   .562  0.5

In addition to requiring a sweep for Pittsburgh to take the pennant, the addition of the extra Sunday game also meant that St. Louis was now eliminated, despite being only a half-game out of first. Pittsburgh won the first game on Sunday and St. Louis took their single contest with Kansas City. So had the rain-out not been made up (and of course, had everything else transpired the same way), here's how the 1915 race would have ended:

Team           W    L    Pct   GB
St. Louis     86   66   .566    -
Pittsburgh    87   67   .565    -
Chicago       85   66   .563  0.5

But there was another game and the Whales put their hopes in Bill Bailey, who had already lost twenty games that year. Bailey, who did most of that losing while pitching for Baltimore before being acquired in a September 14th trade, had already pitched two shutouts in his brief tenure with the Whales. He made it three when he held Pittsburgh to two singles before darkness descended on the field (and the league) in the middle of the seventh inning with the home team ahead 3-0.

In addition to Bill Bailey (and James Gilmore), the Whales had several other heroes during their late season run: Dutch Zwilling, Les Mann, Max Flack and Art Wilson all were at their best, and an old Chicago favorite, Mordecai Brown, took six straight decisions to aid in their comeback.

One thing striking about the short history of the league is how balanced the clubs were. Despite playing the same 154-game schedule as the other two leagues, no team was able to win more than 88 games in either year, and with the exception of the 1915 Baltimore Terrapins, no team lost as many as 90. Of the eight franchises, only Brooklyn failed to crack the first division once, and even they had a .500 record in 1914. Here are the pennant winners with the lowest winning percentage prior to 1961:

Year Team     W   L   Pct
1959 LA  N   88  68  .564
1915 CHI F   86  66  .566
1914 IND F   88  65  .575
1945 DET A   88  65  .575

They were several notable offensive performances in 1915, but a surprising number of them were by pitchers. So let's start with those.

On May 23rd, Walter Johnson hit what was reported to be the longest home run in the history of Cleveland's League Park. He almost added an inside-the-park homer later in the game, but was thrown out at home.14 Babe Ruth followed suit on July 21st, hitting the longest home run seen at St. Louis' Sportman's Park.15 It was part of the first great hitting day of his career, as he added a single and two doubles, and came during a four-game stretch in which he collected nine hits in ten at-bats. Despite having only 92 at-bats that year, Ruth's four homers were twice as many as any other Red Sox player, and only three fewer than the league-leader.

Pitcher Ray Caldwell of the Yankees had a hot streak of his own at the plate, hitting pinch-homers in consecutive games on June 10th and 11th. His home run the next day gave him four for the year, tying him for the league lead. He would not hit another for nearly two years.

Reliever Lefty George joined a rather exclusive club when he hit two triples in a game on September 24th. It's pretty rare for any kind of substitute to hit two triples in a game (the last to do so was Reggie Williams in 1999), but it's especially rare for a relief pitcher to do this. Since George, it has been done once, by Don Larsen in 1954.

And while this didn't involve actually hitting the ball, Red Faber did something quite unusual on June 18th, when the pitcher walked four times in a game. He walked another three times his next time out, giving him a streak of seven walks in eight plate-appearances. A pitcher has walked as many as four times in a game four times since, most recently by Chuck Stobbs in the Red Sox 29-4 blow-out win over the Browns in 1950. One of the others to do it since 1915 was Red Faber himself, who repeated his performance in 1929.

Among the non-pitchers, George Cutshaw managed to do something that hadn't been done in nearly thirteen years when he knocked out six hits in Brooklyn's 13-0 thrashing of the Cubs on August 9th. The last player with six hits in a game was Jimmy Williams of the new-look Baltimore Orioles on August 25, 1902. Cutshaw would follow up his big deal by going hitless in his next four games.

And Gavvy Cravath is most well-known for leading the National League in home runs six times between 1913 and 1919 (and for hitting the overwhelming majority of them at his home park), but the day before Cutshaw went on his batting rampage, Cravath did something even rarer when he hit four doubles in the Phillies 14-6 win over the Reds. No one had managed to do this in more than fourteen years, or since Pop Dillon turned the trick on April 25, 1901, in the first game the Detroit Tigers ever played, a game they won 14-13 with a ten run rally in the bottom of the ninth, and one that was ended by Dillon's second double of the inning.16 The feat would not be repeated until Denny Sothern did it on June 6, 1930.

I mentioned earlier that no one hit more than seven home runs in the American League in 1915. It was done by Braggo Roth, and the majority of those came after he was traded to the Indians in late August as part of the deal that brought Shoeless Joe Jackson to the White Sox. He didn't hit his first homer with his new team until September 20th, but given the scarcity of circuit clouts in the league that year, four home runs in a span of twelve games was sufficient to wrest the crown from Rube Oldring of the A's.

Rookie Ed Fitzpatrick of the Braves had a somewhat painful introduction to major league baseball when, beginning with his first appearance in the starting lineup, he was hit by a pitch in four consecutive games. No one would have a streak that long again until Joe Cunningham in 1961, and the only one with a longer one since is Carlos Quentin, whose streak reached six games on August 14, 2008.

A lot of the news in 1915, however, was made on the basepaths, as Ty Cobb set the American League (as well as the post-Billy-Hamilton Major League) record with 96 stolen bases. In June, Cobb stole twenty-eight bases in only twenty-four games. No one would steal more bases in a month again until Lou Brock in August 1974. He was also caught stealing a reported 38 times, and that doesn't include his ill-advised attempt on May 25th, when with the bases-loaded, one out in the bottom of the ninth-inning and his team down by four runs, Cobb attempted to steal home. Unfortunately for his team, the batter hit a pop-up to the third baseman. Cobb was easily doubled up, and the game was suddenly over.17

There were other farcical aspects of the running game that year. Fritz Maisel of the Yankees stole four bases on April 17th against the A's. Three of them came in the ninth-inning with his team holding a seven-run lead. One of the unwritten rules of the Deadball Era seems to be a willingness to permit opposing players to pad their stolen base totals during the final innings of one-sided games. His steal of home was New York's third of the game.

There was a different reason behind pitcher Red Faber's three stolen bases on July 14th. The White Sox were leading by two runs in the bottom of the fourth inning when the A's began to stall, hoping the game would be rained out. Chicago, for their part, decided to force the issue by having Faber, who reached by getting hit by a pitch, make a leisurely (and uncontested) stroll around the bases.18

I mentioned earlier that Pete Alexander threw four one-hitters in 1914. In one five-start stretch from June 22th to July 9th, he pitched two one-hitters and two two-hitters. The pitcher since 1914 with the next shortest span containing four complete games allowing two hits or less is Steve Arlin, who did it in eight starts from June 18 to July 18, 1972, a season in which he lost twenty-one games. Not included in this was Arlin's ten-inning one-hit no-decision on July 6th.

Walter Johnson continued to be the best pitcher in the junior circuit, winning twenty-seven, part of a run of seven straight years of at least twenty-five wins. He had two separate scoreless-inning streaks of thirty or more innings, and as he would in 1916 and 1917, he especially enjoyed pitching at home. His home and road splits in 1915:

             G  GS  CG SHO  IP     H   R  ER  BB  SO   W   L   ERA
Home        20  19  17   6 167.1 126  37  25  26 102  17   2  1.34
Away        27  20  18   1 169.1 133  46  33  30 101  10  11  1.75

Ed Walsh made only three widely spaced starts in 1915, but pitched complete game victories in all three, the last a shutout over the Browns. No one since has topped the 393 innings he pitched in 1912, or his 464 innings in 1908 for that matter, but he was pretty much finished by 1913, despite being only 32, and that shutout would be his last major league victory.

Connie Mack was never one to coddle his pitchers, and this was certainly true on September 29th. In the first game of the A's double-header with the Senators, he let Chick Davies pitch a complete game, despite giving up ten runs, so it was probably no surprise to second-game starter Tom Sheehan that relief would not be forthcoming no matter how many hits and runs he gave up. When the dust finally settled, he had been reached for twenty-three hits and a season-high twenty runs.

Relief pitching was continuing to evolve and for the sixth time in the seven years, a new record was set for the most relief appearances, this time the record breaker was Sad Sam Jones with 39. And Carl Mays wasn't far behind: his 32 relief appearances had been topped only once before, by Doc Crandall, who had 33 in 1913. Still, for some the transition couldn't come quickly enough: Tom Hughes relieved in twenty-five games in 1915, but he clearly enjoyed the roll. Here are his splits for 1915 and 1916:

              G  GS  CG SHO  GF  SV  IP     H   R  ER  BB  SO   W   L    ERA
Start        38  38  24   5   0   0 297.1 241 103  81  70 165  17  15   2.45
Relief       52   0   0   0  40  14 143.2  88  31  28  40 103  15   2   1.75

And relief pitching featured prominently in both of our year's longest games. On June 17th, Zip Zabel went to the rescue of Bert Humphries with two outs in the top of the first inning and was still in the game when his teammates pushed across the winning run in the bottom of the nineteenth inning. It is the longest relief outing since at least 1914. And one week later, both Red Faber and Guy Morton pitched the last eleven innings of another nineteen-inning game.

After three largely unsuccessful seasons with the Cubs, Fred Toney spent 1914 in the minor leagues. He returned to the majors with the Cincinnati Reds at the beginning of June. He didn't make his first start until June 17th, but he pitched well when given the opportunity, and after his relief appearance on August 8th had a 6-4 record to go with a 2.33 ERA. But over the rest of the season, he was perhaps the hottest pitcher in baseball, throwing six shutouts, and winning eleven games. Here is his record up to August 8th and after:

               G  GS  CG SHO  IP     H   R  ER  BB  SO   W   L   ERA
To August 8   23  11   8   0 108    87  32  28  46  52   6   4  2.33
After         13  12  10   6 115    73  14  11  27  56  11   2  0.86

Although not of the same magnitude as the A's collapse, the New York Giants also suffered mightily in 1915, although for much of the year it appeared as if the pennant was merely one good hot streak away. On August 7th, they had a 49-47 record and were only three games out of first place. But three days later, they embarked upon a dismal 12-29 run that landed them in the basement to stay. The good news was that they were a pretty good last-place team; their winning percentage of .454 was the best for the worst team in the league during the eight-team era.

But being a good bad team was small consolation for manager John McGraw, and he was nowhere to be seen on October 7th, when the Giants and Braves played the last game of their season. The affair took only 62 minutes to complete, which seems incredible given the 15-8 score and 41 hits in the contest. There were no walks and only a single strikeout, as both pitchers lobbed the ball over the plate.19 It was getaway day, and I guess both teams were in a hurry to get away.


Peace returned to major league baseball in 1916 with the demise of the Federal League, and the remaining leagues celebrated by putting on two close pennant races. In a head-to-head double-header at the end of September, the Phillies beat the Brooklyn Robins in the opener to take over first-place for two hours, dropping the afternoon contest when Pete Alexander, pitching with one day's rest, lost 6-1. Philadelphia forged a momentary tie for the lead on October 2nd, beating the Braves 2-0, behind Alexander (again pitching with a single day of rest) in the opener of another double-header. Unfortuntely for the Phillies, they again dropped the second game, while the Robins were beating the Giants. There was bad blood between New York and Philadelphia and the season came to a close with a hint of scandal as many, including Giants' manager John McGraw,20 thought that his team gave less than their best effort in dropping three of four in the season-ending series. Brooklyn, who only the year before had posted their first winning season in more than a decade, had their first pennant since 1900.

On offense, the Robins were led by Zach Wheat and Jake Daubert, while their top pitchers included Jeff Pfeffer (who won twenty-five games), Larry Cheney and Rube Marquard, who didn't join the starting rotation until late June, but finished with thirteen wins in a comeback season that earned him the starting assignment in the World Series opener.

A highlight for Zach Wheat in 1916 was hitting in a career-high 29 consecutive games. Wheat struck out seventeen times during his hot spell, and the next player with as many strikeouts during a consecutive game streak would be Duke Snider, who fanned seventeen times in 27 games in 1953. The current record holder is Eric Davis who struck out thirty times in as many games in 1998. Wheat dramatically cut down on his strikeouts following 1916. Here are his rates both before (not including 1909, for which we are missing this data) and after the end of that season:

           AB   BB   SO  HBP   SH    PA    SO%
Before   3757  282  364   35   85  4159   8.75
After    5247  362  195   42   73  5724   3.41

Where SO% is his percentage of strikeouts per plate appearance.

It probably isn't particularly significant or historic, but Pfeffer and Cheney sure enjoyed pitching against the three worst teams in the league that year. Here is their record against the Cards, Reds and Pirates as well as their mark against everyone else:

                 G  GS  CG SHO  IP     H   R  ER  BB  SO   W   L   ERA
Bottom Three    37  33  26   8 301.1 215  50  34  62 152  27   4  1.02
Others          45  35  19   3 276.2 234 136  93 106 143  16  19  3.03

The results for the rest of the staff were quite a bit different. They went only 17-18 against the three worst teams, while posting a 34-19 mark against the others.

The Red Sox, hurt by the loss of star center-fielder Tris Speaker, stumbled through the first two months of the season, and were playing only .500 ball as late as June 20th. Speaker had been sent to the Indians for financial reasons a few days before the start of the season (he was holding out to lessen a huge cut in pay and Boston figured they could turn their unhappy star into a pile of money). The team was also hurt by the season-long holdout of Smoky Joe Wood (also eventually sent to the Indians for a big check), as well as by the premature decline of star infielder Jack Barry, who suffered through an injury-plagued season and at 29 was already through as a productive major leaguer.

Despite the absence of Wood, they still had the best pitching staff in the league and by the time they wrapped up a lengthy home stand at end of August, had a three-game lead over the Tigers. They spent almost the entire last month on the road, however, and by the time they left St. Louis on September 15th, their lead was a slim three percentage points over the Tigers and a half-game over the White Sox. After dropping the opener of a three-game series in Chicago, they found themselves in third place. Fortunately, they picked the right time to get hot, winning the last two games of the series before heading into Detroit to sweep their other main competition in three straight games. In five days, they had gone from third place to a two and a half game lead. They were led by Babe Ruth, who won four games in the last two weeks of September, including two shutouts. His nine shutouts that season would set an AL record for left-handers that wouldn't be tied until Ron Guidry matched it in 1978.

The Red Sox were favored to win the World Series and things went pretty much according to form. Just how predictable was the series? Well, on the eve of the first game, sportswriter Hugh Fullerton didn't simply pick them to win, he predicted the outcome of each game.21 He got the Robins' starting pitchers wrong (he thought Pfeffer would start ahead of Marquard in the opener), but he got pretty much everything else right, with Boston taking the first two contests, the second a one-run victory for Ruth, dropping the third to Coombs, before winning the next behind Leonard. He thought the series would end with Shore taking a 3-1 decision over Pfeffer in game five. Instead, Shore beat Jeff Pfeffer and the Robins 4-1.

The most memorable contest was the second, a extra-inning affair that didn't end until Del Gainer hit a run-scoring pinch-single with one out in the bottom of the fourteenth. It was the longest game (by innings) in World Series history and it still is, although it was tied by the White Sox and Astros in 2005. Those two games are a study in contrasts, although they perhaps exaggerate the changes in the game over the 89 intervening years. The Red Sox and Robins scored a total of three runs, used only two pitchers, and wrapped things up in a little more than two and a half hours. Seventeen different pitchers saw action in the 2005 battle, gave up a combined twelve runs, and took over five and a half hours to finish the job.

The Giants may have finished in fourth place, driving their manager to finish the season at the racetrack instead of the ballpark,22 but they did produce two historic streaks in 1916. The first occurred in May, when the Giants departed for a long road trip with a 2-13 record and proceeded to win seventeen straight games. It was the longest road winning streak in major league history, eclipsing the previous mark of 16 set by the Union Association's St. Louis Maroons in 1884 and tied by the 1912 Washington Senators. The last game in the streak, a 3-0 win over the Braves featured the last shutout of Christy Mathewson's career.

The next streak started in September. This time, they won twenty-six consecutive decisions (there was one tie game in the middle) and all of the games were played at home. This was reported as breaking the record of twenty set by the 1884 Providence Grays, a streak that featured eighteen wins by Old Hoss Radbourn. (Once Providence's streak was broken, Radbourn went on to win the next eight games.) A member of that team, shortstop Arthur Irwin, was in the stands at the Polo Grounds when his old team's mark was eclipsed.23

Except it wasn't the previous mark. There had been two longer earlier streaks. Ignoring the first one made sense: the National Association was often not considered a major league and so not including the 1875 Boston Red Stockings, who took their first twenty-six decisions of the year (like the Giants, they also had a tie mixed in with all the wins) was not surprising. But in 1880, the Chicago White Stockings had won twenty-one straight decisions (once again, with a tie) and I'm not sure why people at the time didn't know about that one.

By the way, the Giants did not set the record for the most consecutive winning decisions at home. That mark is owned by the 1885 St. Louis Browns, who won twenty-seven straight games at Sportman's Park from April 26th to July 18th. The Giants did set the record for the most wins in a month that September, their twenty-nine victories three more than the previous record-holders (the 1906 Cubs, who won twenty-six in August, and the 1914 Braves, who did the same that September). The closest a team has come since was the Yankees, who went 28-8 during August, 1938.

The Giants owed their September winning streak primarily to pitching and defense. The average score during their loss-less streak was 4.52-1.22; the rest of the year, it was 3.71-3.68. Here are the pitchers who took the mound for New York during that stretch:

Name             G  GS  CG SHO  IP     H   R  ER  BB  SO   W   L   ERA
Hank Ritter      2   0   0   0   3     1   0   0   0   0   1   0  0.00
Ferdie Schupp    6   6   6   4  54    17   3   2  10  24   6   0  0.33
Slim Sallee      2   2   2   1  18    15   1   1   1   3   2   0  0.50
Pol Perritt      6   5   5   2  47.2  29   4   3   5  28   4   0  0.57
Rube Benton      6   4   4   2  44.1  22   4   3   3  26   5   0  0.61
Jeff Tesreau     7   6   6   1  54.1  43  10   9   9  28   7   0  1.49
George Smith     3   1   0   0  12.1  11   5   5   2   4   1   0  3.65
Fred Anderson    3   3   0   0   6.2  13   6   6   7   8   0   0  8.10

Ferdie Schupp's ERA dropped from 1.25 to 0.88 during this period. There were only four incomplete starts, three of them by Fred Anderson, who seemed to be the only Giants pitcher not invited to the party.

During sixteen straight games from September 18th to the end of their streak, the Giants allowed only twelve runs, the lowest total over a span that long in major league history. They never allowed more than two runs in any one contest and held their opponents scoreless eight times. Included in this were back-to-back one-hitters against the Braves. The second lowest total of runs allowed over sixteen games was thirteen, by the 1908 White Sox from September 17th to October 5th. All that winning did little to improve their place in the standings. The Giants were in fourth place when they started and they were still in fourth place when their streak came to an end.

In the American League, the Philadelphia Athletics almost cornered the market on losing. They lost so many games that the league came within one rain-out of having no other losing team. The Senators finished 76-77 and their one unplayed decision was with the Athletics. Since Washington went 15-6 against them, the smart money would have been on the Senators evening their record had the game been played. As late as October 3rd, the Athletics were the only losing team in the league. The latest this had happened previously was on June 16, 1882, when Baltimore of the American Association stood alone with more losses than wins, and the latest since then was on May 20, 1954 when the Pittsburgh Pirates did the honors for the rest of the NL.

They didn't start out historically bad. On May 22nd, they were 13-17, in fifth place and only two games out of the first division. They owed their not-so-horrible start to the top of their rotation. Here are the records of Joe Bush and Elmer Myers after their team's first thirty games compared to the rest of the staff:

             G  GS  CG SHO  IP     H   R  ER  BB  SO   W   L   ERA
Bush/Myers  19  14  13   1 136   102  45  35  71  67  12   4  2.32
The Rest    32  16   1   0 132.1 147  94  71  99  48   1  13  4.83

But then things got ugly in a hurry. From June 3rd to August 8th, they went 4-56, losing eleven, four, twelve, nine and twenty games between each of their wins. Those twenty straight losses tied the AL mark originally set by Boston in 1906, a record that would be tied by the 1943 Athletics before being broken by the 1988 Orioles. The average score of their games during this period was 5.7 to 2.2.

The closest any team has come to going 4-56 since (and it wasn't really all that close) were the 10-50 marks posted by the 1949 Senators, who had five overlapping streaks, the first from June 19th to August 20th (they had a winning record when that streak began) and the last from July 17th to September 14th, and the 1969 Padres, who had two overlapping streaks, the first from June 12th to August 17th and the other starting a game later.

How bad were the Athletics? Their 6-15 mark against the Senators was their second best against any team in the league. They went 2-28 in July and 13-64 on the road. And it could have been even worse. They closed out their season with a double-header sweep of the champion Red Sox, who had clinched the pennant and were resting up for the World Series. Those two victories gave the Athletics their first series win since taking two of three from the White Sox in May. Chicago got some measure of revenge for those losses when they swept Philadelphia in an eight-game series that started on July 29th. Going into their final double-header, the Athletics had only one more win than Pete Alexander, the cross-town ace of the Phillies, had all by himself.

Of course, Alexander had a phenomenal season in 1916 and was likely the most valuable player in either league. He had a four-game winning streak in May accompanied by a 0.50 ERA, a five-game winning streak in June with a 0.96 ERA, a six-game winning streak in July with a 0.50 ERA; and he pitched four shutouts in his first five starts in August, good for a 0.38 ERA. When he was finished, he had won a career-high 33 games, a total no pitcher has reached since, and was in the middle of a three-year run that would see him win 94 games. He also threw sixteen shutouts, including five against the Reds, tying the mark set by Tom Hughes against the Indians in 1905, a record that would be equalled in 1966 by Larry Jaster (against the Dodgers).

When he threw his fourteenth shutout on September 1st, he was reported to have broken the major league record set in 1910 by Jack Coombs, then with the Athletics.24 The losing pitcher in the record-setting game? The same Jack Coombs, now pitching for the Robins. But as it so often turns out, that wasn't the previous record, just the highest total anyone still remembered. In 1876, George Bradley had thrown sixteen shutouts for the St. Louis Brown Stockings, a mark Alexander tied in his last start of the year.

When Tris Speaker was added to his roster on the eve of the 1916 season, Cleveland manager Lee Fohl said that he thought the move "would strengthen his club 40 per cent."25 The fact this his team's victory total increased by only 35 per cent that year was probably due more to Fohl's unreasonable expectations than any deficiencies in Speaker's performance. All the new arrival did was lead the league in hits, doubles and all three of the so-called (although certainly not in 1916) "slash stats": batting average, on-base and slugging percentage. It would be his only batting title, one that officially broke Ty Cobb's string of nine straight. Of course, those nine included one in 1910, when he had only the second highest average in the league, and in 1914, when he played only 98 games.

Babe Ruth made more noise with his pitching arm than his bat in 1916, but he did go on a mini-homer splurge in June, hitting three in the space of five at-bats from June 9th to 13th. This was part of a stretch that saw him go 12-18, raising his batting average to .304 after a season-opening 2-28 slump. He would not hit another home run for nearly fourteen months, connecting next on August 10, 1917.

Don't blame Wally: from June 16th to July 7th, Wally Schang hit in twenty straight games for the woeful Athletics, one of four players with hitting streaks that long in 1916. His team went 2-18 in those games. Since then, the worst record by a team while one of its players was hitting in twenty consecutive games was the 4-16 mark posted by the Reds during Al Libke's hot streak in 1945 (not counting his game, which they lost, without a plate appearance in the middle) and by the Phillies, who went 6-20 during Chuck Klein hitting streak in 1930, including four different overlapping stretches of 4-16 baseball.

The Cubs had an interesting situation at the start of 1916. Having inherited the bulk of the former Chicago Whales, they had an opportunity to create one good team out of the rosters of two not-so-good ones. At shortstop, they went with 21-year-old Eddie Mulligan, who had gone 8-22 in a late September trial the previous year. That performance turned out to be deceptive, however. In the first game of 1916, he committed two errors and struck out three times in five hitless plate appearances. It never got much better. By the time they pulled the plug on the experiment in mid-July, he was hitting .153 (with a .412 OPS) and had fewer hits (29) than either errors (40) or strikeouts (30). He was the last player with at least 100 at-bats to join this club, the previous two members being Doc Lavan in 1913, and Frank O'Rourke in 1912. Like Mulligan, they were also rookie shortstops.

On September 22nd, Sam Crawford hit the last triple of his record-setting major league career. Earlier in the season. he had become the first (and only) player to hit 300 triples. He ended the year with more triples than doubles for the fifth time in his career.

Rogers Hornsby turned twenty on April 27th, but the infielder emerged as one of the league's best players in 1916, He had perhaps the biggest game at the plate that year, with five hits, including two triples and a home run, on June 28th. Surprisingly, he would have only one other five-hit game in his career, on July 13, 1923.

On June 26th, Christy Mathewson won his last game as a New York Giant. He entered in the fifth inning with two on, two out and his team clinging to a 6-5 lead. George Cutshaw, the first batter he faced, hit a three-run homer, capping Brooklyn's eight-run inning. But Mathewson gave up only one more hit the rest of the way as New York rallied for a 11-8 win. Less than a month later, John McGraw traded three future Hall of Famers (including Mathewson) to the Reds for Buck Herzog and Red Killefer. Mathewson would make only one more start in his career, beating Mordecai Brown in a scripted finale for both of the former stars on September 4th. They had very little left, but both pitched until the bitter end, which came after a combined thirty-four hits and eighteen runs, when Fritz Mollwitz flied out with the tying runs on base to give Christy a 10-8 win.26 At the plate, the two pitchers combined for five hits off each other.

One old pitcher still throwing effectively was 41-year-old Eddie Plank, who on August 8th lost a no-hitter with one out in the top of the ninth. He had pitched a two-hitter in his previous start and would do the same in his next. In a four-start stretch from July 30th to August 12th, he allowed only nine hits.

Tom Hughes pitched a no-hitter against the Pirates on June 16th. For Hughes, normally a reliever, it was his only start of the month, a month that saw him allow only seven hits in twenty-six consecutive scoreless innings. He would finish the year with a 16-3 record, including a 9-1 mark out of the bullpen.

It's a sad story, but one that needs to be told: on September 2nd, Harry Harper entered the eighth-inning with a three-run lead, only six outs away from his fifteenth win and a promised $500 bonus.27 But the Athletics rallied, helped by a two-out dropped fly, and tied the game, temporarily denying Harper the milestone win and paycheck. Unfortunately, a sore arm shortly turned the temporary delay into a permanent one, as Harper made only one more start in the season and finished with what would turn out to be a career-high fourteen wins.28

On September 12th, one out away from beating Walter Johnson for the fifth time that year, Babe Ruth gave up a game-tying two-run double to Senators' catcher John Henry, sending the game into extra-innings. Johnson ended up with his twenty-fifth victory, giving him an outside chance at winning thirty for the third time. That chance disappeared as he lost his next three starts, and then was given permission to head home a week and a half early.29 He finished the season with twenty losses, the last time a pitcher would enter both the twenty-win and twenty-loss club until Wilbur Wood in 1973 and Phil Niekro in 1979.

George Sisler pitched a shutout on September 17th, beating Walter Johnson 1-0. He completed all three of his starts that year, losing the other two by a 2-0 score. Sisler batted third in the game. Here are the last shutouts by pitchers hitting in the first through eighth positions in the batting order from 1916 to 2011:

Pos   Player              Date
  1 - none *1
  2 - none *2
  3 - George Sisler     9-17-1916
  4 - Babe Ruth         7-17-1918(2) (five innings)
  5 - none *5
  6 - none *6
  7 - Bob Friend        8-26-1956(1)
  8 - Livan Hernandez   6-15-2011

 *1 - No shutouts or complete games. Last two starts were by Cesar Tovar in 1968 and Al Dark in 1953.
      It was the only major league pitching appearance of both players' careers.
 *2 - No starting pitchers hit second during these years.
 *5 - No shutouts. Closest was a one-run complete game loss by Walter Johnson in 1916.
 *6 - No shutouts. Closest was a one-run complete game loss by Walter Johnson in 1919.

The Athletics' Jack Nabors, after six previous losses in 1915 and 1916, finally won his first major league game on April 22nd, beating the Red Sox 6-2. He would not win again, dropping his final nineteen decisions to end his career with a 1-25 mark. The next most losses for a pitcher with a single major league victory is fifteen, by Jim Clinton and Mike Thompson, although Terry Felton lost sixteen games in his career without a major league win.

Nabors should have have picked up a 2-1 win on June 24th, but Connie Mack was trying out a new catcher and Mike Murphy, the recruit, booted away the game in the last inning. He could have also been in line for a 4-2 win on September 19th when reliever Tom Sheehan gave up three runs in the bottom of the ninth. For Sheehan, that defeat was his last decision in a 1-16 campaign, his single win coming on June 26th. It's a win he might not have been granted under the scoring practices of the day, since he entered the game in the bottom of the fourth inning with his team already in front (the rule that a starter had to pitch at least five innings was more than three decades away). When he lost his fourteenth decision in Boston on September 6th, the Boston Globe reported that he was still winless.30

The best pitcher for the Athletics that year was clearly Bullet Joe Bush, who pitched eight shutouts, accounting for the majority of his fifteen wins. One of these shutouts was a no-hitter on August 26th. That game also marked the last one of Nap Lajoie's career, as strained leg ligaments cut short his final major league season.31 Another rare highlight in Philadelphia's season occurred on September 8th, when Wally Schang became the first major leaguer to hit a home run from both sides of the plate in a game. This would not happen again until Augie Galan turned the trick in 1937.

The Senators' Claude Thomas made his first major league start on September 18th, taking a no-hitter into the seventh inning before settling for a two-hit shutout. Through the first six innings of his next start, he held the Tigers to two harmless hits before the wheels came off. Here is Thomas' career record both before and after the seventh-inning stretch on September 22nd:

              IP    H   R  ER    ERA
Before        17    5   0   0   0.00
After         11.1 22  14  13  10.32

It was a long time coming, but on September 21st, Pop-boy Smith finally got his first (and what would turn out to his only) major league win when the Indians defeated Walter Johnson and the Senators 3-2 in thirteen innings. It came more than three years and five months after his debut in 1913. The circumstances of his victory might surprise modern readers, however. Smith left the game after nine innings with the scored tied, but he, rather than reliever Al Gould (who pitched four scoreless extra-innings), was awarded the win. I discuss the strange circumstances surrounding Smith's first three appearances of 1916 in greater detail in another article.

The marathons of the year took place a month and a day apart. On June 13th, the Braves and Reds played a sixteen-inning scoreless contest, the longest scoreless game in National League history. The major league mark of eighteen innings was set on July 16, 1909, in a game between Detroit and Washington. The Reds' Fred Toney allowed only two hits in his eleven innings on the mound and Pete Schneider, his successor, gave up only one the rest of the way. The Browns and Red Sox went one better on July 14th, when Ernie Koob and a combination of Carl Mays and Dutch Leonard threw seventeen scoreless innings.

While discussing the inepititude of the Athletics above, I mentioned that the White Sox swept them in an eight-game series that summer. If you define a series as a number of consecutive games played between two teams in the same park, this was the longest series sweep in major league history.32 There was one other eight-game sweep since, when the 1928 Giants turned the trick against the Braves from September 10th to 14th.

In case you're wondering, there have only been eleven series this long (and none longer) in major league history. Here they are (with the number of wins by each team in parenthesis):

   Start    Team       Team
1903- 9-19  PHI N (5)  CIN N (3)
1910- 9- 6  CHI A (4)  STL A (4)
1911- 5-29  STL N (5)  CIN N (2) - 1 tie
1912- 9-24  STL A (4)  CHI A (3) - 1 tie
1916- 7-29  CHI A (8)  PHI A (0)
1922- 8-30  BOS N (6)  PHI N (2)
1928- 9-10  NY  N (8)  BOS N (0)
1935- 8-25  NY  A (5)  CHI A (3)
1943- 8-22  CLE A (5)  BOS A (3)
1943- 8-22  WAS A (4)  STL A (4)
1945- 8-19  DET A (6)  PHI A (2)

It probably got a bit tedious sitting in the stands after a while, but the Tigers and Athletics combined to draw thirty walks in the opening game of their four-game series on May 9th. George Cunningham, Detroit's starting (and winning) pitcher, was pitching a no-hitter when he was removed in the middle of the third after issuing his sixth walk. Carl Ray walked twelve while mopping up the Philadelphia loss and would never pitch in the majors again. The Tigers continued to exercise patience at the plate, walking eleven and ten times in the next two games before the two teams wrapped up their series on May 12th by combining for another twenty-five.

Sometimes teams carried "small ball" to extremes. On September 1st the Athletics were losing 3-0 in the top of the ninth inning of the first game of their double-header with the Senators when the first two hitters singled, putting runners on first and third and bring the tying run to the plate in the person of Amos Strunk, their third-place hitter. So what did Strunk do? He sacrificed the runner on first to second.

The discrepancy of the year occurred on September 14th in the Tigers 4-2 loss to the Yankees. Officially, Ossie Vitt went 0-0 with four runs scored and a strikeout. There are at least three things very wrong with this. First, you can't score more runs in a game than your team. Next, you can't strikeout without having at least one official at-bat. And finally, a team's lead-off hitter can't go through an entire game without a plate appearance unless there is a whole lot of batting out of turn that goes undetected. Of course, the error was simple: his at-bat total was incorrectly entered in the runs column.


After their record-setting performance the previous September, the New York Giants were heavily favored to take the 1917 National League pennant and the experts were right. The Giants did it with the same lineup and pitching staff that had finished the previous year so strongly. Heinie Zimmerman and George Burns led the best offense and Ferdie Schupp and Pol Perritt anchored the top pitching staff in the league.

Their win over the Phillies on June 27th put them into first place to stay, kicking off a 31-10 run that left them with a fourteen-game lead by August 10th. That loss started the second-place Phillies on a month-long 7-18 stretch that killed their pennant chances. Pete Alexander did his best, winning five games during the free-fall, but got little help from the rest of the staff, including six straight losses by Eppa Rixey. Their offense was also to blame, as they averaged less than three runs a game during the swoon.

For the Giants, their pennant completed a first-to-worst-to-first journey that took only five years. The next two shortest journeys before the advent of divisional play were nine by the Boston Americans/Red Sox from 1904 to 1906 to 1912, and twelve by the Cubs from 1918 to 1925 to 1929. If you count divisional play, the San Diego Padres did it in the shortest possible time, from 1996 to 1997 to 1998, but that was in a division with only four teams. Some mention should be made of the Pirates, who had the best record in the National League in 1979, the worst in 1985 and then the best again in 1990, a twelve year journey in a twelve team league.

The Giants were helped by the collapse of the defending champions, as the Robins fell all the way to seventh-place. Their decline was across the board. All of the pitchers they had counted on the year before performed at least a little bit worse, and Jake Daubert, one of the big guns in 1916, produced only ten extra-base hits, hardly the production Wilbert Robinson was hoping from his first-baseman.

It was the fewest extra-base hits for a player appearing in at least a hundred games at first base in major league history, breaking the previous low of eleven, set two years earlier by Hap Myers of the Federal League's Brooklyn Tip-Tops. If you don't count the FL as a major league, the next lowest total was twelve, by Jay Faatz of the American Association's Cleveland Blues in 1888. Daubert's mark was finally broken in 1965 by Vic Power, with nine. That record was tied by Tony Muser in 1976 and then broken for the last time by Mike Squires, with six in 1983. Both Squires and Power deserve an asterisk since they were late-inning defensive replacements for much of the year. Even Muser had only 326 at-bats, much less than Daubert's 468.

In the American League, the White Sox and Red Sox were locked in a close race most of the summer. On August 17th, the two teams were separated by a single percentage point. Three days later, they met in Chicago for a four-game series. After splitting those games, both teams got hot, but unfortunately for Boston, won six of their next seven decisions, the White Sox got hotter, fashioning two nine-game winning streaks separated by a single loss. By the time Red Faber beat Bullet Joe Bush and the Athletics 6-1 on September 18th, his team had gone 21-2 and their lead had balooned to eight games.

The second-place Red Sox did pretty much what they had the year before. Once again, Babe Ruth led the league's best pitching staff. The team's offense scored about the same number of runs, the pitching was a little better, and the team finished with one fewer victory than in 1916. But while they were treading water, the White Sox somehow got eleven games better. At first glance, it's hard to see why. Yes, Eddie Cicotte had a break-through season, winning a league-leading 28 games. But their biggest improvement came at the plate, where they managed to score 54 more runs than in 1916 despite hitting 60 fewer extra-base hits. They did get on base 66 more times, which offset their lower slugging percentage, but it sure looks like they owed some of the improvement to getting their hits at more opportune times. Which is another way of saying that they hit better in the clutch, which is usually a euphemism for saying they were luckier.

Chicago's trip to the World Series was the first by a team from the western half of a league since the Cubs' appearance in 1910. Of course, Pittsburgh was considered part of the west before the 1950s. From 1911 to 1916, the World Series had been monopolized by three cities, with four participants apiece coming from New York, Boston and Philadelphia, each of those cities being represented by two different teams. And this division between the eastern and western parts of the league seemed to matter. One reporter wrote: "For the first time in the history of Base Ball, it produced a series between the two largest cities in the United States, one the Eastern capital and the other the Middle West capital. It gave everyone a chance to shout because all the East and all the West were mixed up in it." 33

Both teams held serve through the first four games. White Sox manager Pants Rowland, helped by a rain-out, had been able to go with a two-man pitching staff of Eddie Cicotte and Red Faber through those four, but he would start a well-rested Reb Russell in game five. It was a decision he would regret almost immediately, removing his starter after only three batters in favor of a not-so-well-rested Cicotte, who pitched six innings of relief. Heading into the bottom of the seventh, the visiting Giants held on to a 5-2 lead behind the pitching of Slim Sallee when the White Sox rallied for three runs, two coming in on Chick Gandil's double and the last counting on an error by Buck Herzog.

With the game now tied, Rowland put Faber into the game, and the right-hander earned his second win of the series when Chicago scored three more times the next inning. Giants' manager John McGraw was criticized for his decision to send Sallee out for the eighth, having already walked four and been touched for ten hits and five runs. By the time McGraw finally replaced him, he had given up three more hits and, hurt by another error, two (and soon to be three) runs.

The format of the series was somewhat different than it is today. The two teams flipped a coin before the series to determine where it would start. They played two games in each park before alternating the site of games five and six (giving the teams an extra travel day). Another coin toss, won by New York, decided the site of a possible game seven. And so after the fifth game, they headed back to the Polo Grounds for the rest of the series, a park where the White Sox had been shut out in games three and four.34 With the benefit of the travel day, Rowland was able to bring back Faber to start game six, where he faced Rube Benton, who had authored one of the previous shutouts.

Benton would be undone by his fielders in the fourth inning. It started when Heinie Zimmerman muffed a grounder and Dave Robertson dropped a fly ball, putting runners on the corners with no one out. With the infield drawn in to cut off the run at the plate, Happy Felsch hit a grounder to Benton who tossed to third in an attempt to retire Eddie Collins heading back to third. Unfortunately, no one was covering home (the consensus was that first baseman Walter Holke should have been there)35 and so Zimmerman unsuccessfully chased Collins across the plate for the first run of the game. A single by Gandil plated two more, giving Faber more than enough runs to pick up his third win of the series.

Over the course of six games, Faber and Cicotte pitched all but two innings for Chicago. And Faber joined a short list of pitchers with four or more decisions in a single series, a list that also includes Deacon Phillippe (3-2) and Bill Dinneen (3-1) in 1903, Smoky Joe Wood (3-1) in 1912 and Hank Borowy (2-2) in 1945. Left-handed pitchers started all six games for the Giants while righty Pol Perritt, who pitched extremely well the over the last six weeks of the season, winning eight straight games with an ERA of 1.13, was relegated to bullpen duty. Another star for the White Sox was Eddie Collins, who led or tied for the team lead in hits, runs scored and stolen bases, while winning his race with Zimmerman in the final game. Ironically, one of the goats for the Giants was Dave Robertson, whose defensive failings in the last two games (he also misplayed two fly balls in game five) overshadowed his series-leading eleven hits and .500 batting average.

For White Sox manager Pants Rowland, the victory in the World Series was especially sweet in light of the reaction when he was selected by Charlie Comiskey to manage the team following the 1914 season. A typical response to the hiring of Rowland, who had no major league experience as either a player or a coach: "the surprise... is not so much that a 'busher' should be elevated to the position as that a 'busher' should have been picked to direct Eddie Collins as to how the game shall be played."36 His victory was short-lived, however. Following a disappointing finish in 1918, Rowland was replaced at the helm of the team by Kid Gleason. And while he would not manage at the major league level again, he would return as an American League umpire from 1923 to 1927.

The Detroit Tigers were out of contention the last two months of the season, but Ty Cobb wasn't the reason why. He had a great year, leading the league in hits (by 35), doubles, triples, stolen bases, and the triple crown of rate categories (batting average as well as on-base and slugging percentage). He had a relatively slow start that year, but hit safely in every game during June, a streak that reached thirty-five games before ending on July 6th. He had an even longer streak in 1911, one that also lasted the entire month of June (before ending on July 4th).

Despite Cobb, there weren't a lot of offensive highlights in 1917. Only one player in each league hit more than one homer in a game during the regular season (Benny Kauff also did it in the third game of the World Series), and no one managed to hit for the cycle. As a matter of fact, only one team managed to hit as many as three home runs in a game. Still, there were some offensive outbursts.

The Tigers beat the Washington Senators 16-4 on July 30th. It wasn't the most runs a team plated that season (that was the twenty scored by the Indians eight days earlier), but it was unusual because Ossie Vitt, Ty Cobb and Bobby Veach, their second, third and fourth-place hitters, had five hits apiece and scored twelve runs.

Washington lost their third game of the season by the same score when the Philadelphia Athletics exploded for ten runs in the seventh inning. Charlie Jamieson, who would later become a star outfielder for the Indians, made his only mound appearance of the year in that game, giving up all ten runs. The Athletics, by the way, were the most improved team in the league, winning nineteen more games than they had the previous year, but few took much notice, since they still finished in the cellar.

For the first time since George Goetz in 1889, a player struck out four times in his major league debut. It was the Athletics' Rollie Naylor, who fanned in all four of his plate appearances, but pitched well, defeating the Senators 2-1 on September 14th. Like Naylor, Goetz was a pitcher, and also like Naylor, he won the game. Unlike Naylor, however, Goetz would not appear in another major league game. No player would start his career with four strikeouts again until Lee Bales in 1966.

There was one single-season hitting record set in 1917. The Indians' Ray Chapman set a mark that still stands when he rapped out 67 sacrifice hits. Well, perhaps "rapped" isn't the correct word. And the strange thing is that he probably wouldn't have even led his own league if the Red Sox' player-manager Jack Barry, who had the third highest single-season total in major league history with 54, had played a full season.

But it seemed as if most of the action in 1917 was on the mound. It started with a riot of no-hitters during the first four weeks of the season. Ed Cicotte began the festivities when he set down the Browns without a hit in his first start of the season. Ten days later, Yankees' pitcher George Mogridge, blanked the Red Sox in his second start.

The next no-hitters came in stereo on May 2nd, the first double no-hitter in major league history. Of course, the buzz-kills at MLB no longer count both of them, since Hippo Vaughn eventually gave up two hits, the last (by Jim Thorpe) driving in the game's only run in the tenth. He was defeated by Fred Toney, who gave up only two walks (both to Cy Williams) in the game. Vaughn allowed eleven hits in his starts both before and after his almost-gem, winning both of them.

A few days later, St. Louis Browns's pitchers Ernie Koob and Bob Groom no-hit the White Sox batters on successive days. Koob's no-hitter was reported in most newspapers as a one-hitter37, but the official scorer had a change of heart after the game and changed Buck Weaver's first-inning single to an error. Because of this, American League president Ban Johnson announced that official scorers would no longer be permitted to change their mind on these calls.38 Groom actually pitched eleven hitless innings on May 6th, shutting down Chicago over the last two innings of the first game and all nine innings of the second. Including Cicotte's earlier gem, that game marked the third no-hitter of the season between the White Sox and Browns. There would not be another nine-inning no-hitter pitched by a member of the Browns until Bobo Holloman turned the trick exactly thirty-six years later.

Groom's gem was the fifth no-hitter of the year, and the season wasn't even four weeks old. (It was the sixth if you count Vaughn's.) There would not be another thrown by a starter the rest of the season. But there was one more gem, this one credited to a reliever. On June 23rd, Babe Ruth got ejected from his start after walking Ray Morgan, the first batter of the game. Ernie Shore entered the game at that point; Morgan was thrown out trying to steal, and Shore set down the next twenty-six batters for what is often (but not always) considered to be a perfect game. By the way, Ruth responded to his ejection by attacking umpire Brick Owens and ended up with a ten-day suspension for his trouble.39

Those five no-hitters in a 23-game span was the shortest in major league history, but not by a lot. In 1990, there were five no-hitters in a 30-game span. The first was thrown by Randy Johnson on June 2nd and the last by Andy Hawkins on July 1st. The next shortest span? Also in 1990 - the 32 days between Nolan Ryan's no-hitter on June 11th and Melido Perez' no-no on July 12th. 1990 also takes third place, with 48 days between the two no-hitters by Dave Stewart and Fernando Valenzuela on June 29th and the one thrown by Terry Mulholland on August 15th. The fourth spot on the list occurred in 1991, when there were 59 days between four Orioles pitchers holding the Athletics hitless on July 13th and three Atlanta Braves pitchers combining to no-hit the Padres on September 11th.40

For a good hitting team (they led their league in runs scored), the White Sox were not only victims of two no-hitters in the space of two days, but also suffered back-to-back one-hit games on August 10th and 11th. Walter Johnson pitched the first of those, chipping in three hits on offense and scoring two of the Senators' four runs. Johnson slumped through much of the early going and his one-hitter was part of a second-half surge that quieted those skeptics who thought he might be nearing the end of the line. His stats before and after the morning of July 24th:

             G  GS  CG SHO  IP     H   R  ER  BB  SO   W   L   ERA
Before      28  20  17   3 186.2 158  70  54  44 110   7  13  2.60
After       19  14  13   5 140.2  92  35  26  27  78  16   3  1.66

Actually, he wasn't all that bad before his hot streak.

Johnson also liked home cooking. Here are his combined home and road splits for 1916 and 1917:

             G  GS  CG SHO  IP     H   R  ER  BB  SO   W   L   ERA
Home        47  35  34   9 357.2 221  73  53  74 230  31  10  1.33
Away        48  37  32   2 339.1 319 137 105  79 187  17  26  2.78

From 1915 to the end of his career, Johnson went 142-67 at home while going 96-97 on the road.

On September 29th, Babe Ruth won the 67th game of his career. He was twenty-two years old (and 237 days). Since then, only Bob Feller won his 67th game at a younger age (he was almost exactly a year younger than Ruth when he turned the trick on June 29, 1940). Of course, we selected 67 to make Ruth look as good (or as young) as possible, but he is high on the list even if you round it up somewhat. Ruth collected his 75th victory on August 1, 1918. In addition to Feller, two other pitchers since have accomplished this at a younger age. They are Bert Blyleven on August 25, 1974 and Dwight Gooden on April 10, 1988, and none of those pitchers were leading their leagues in home runs at the time.

By the way, the three oldest pitchers to win their 75th game are Joe Heving, who won it on his 44th birthday, Mike Timlin, who was 144 days past his 42nd birthday, and Mariano Rivera, who was 41 years and 136 days old on April 14, 2011.

In addition to throwing the only officially recognized no-hitter in the famous double no-hit game that year, Fred Toney also had the distinction of allowing only six hits in his double-header victory on July 1st. It was the fewest allowed in a twin-bill since Tim Keefe held the Columbus Buckeyes to a total of three singles (one in the first and two in second) on July 4, 1883.

Toney's teammate Pete Schneider was on the other side of a twin-decision that year, dropping both ends of a double-header on September 26th. He faced a different Boston Braves' pitcher in each game, Jesse Barnes in the first and Art Nehf in the second, and both of them held his team scoreless. It was the third straight year that Schneider would finish the season with exactly nineteen losses. Barnes and Nehf would later both star for the New York Giants, combining for 41 wins in 1920 as well as three wins in the 1921 World Series.

Ed Walsh made a comeback in August and held his opponents scoreless in his first two starts. Unfortunately, he only pitched a total of seven innings in the games, and was forced to leave the last after being beaned by Milt Watson. A few weeks later, he returned to the mound and was allowed to go the distance in his last major league start, giving up sixteen hits and eight runs.

Chief Bender had a more successful comeback. On August 21st, he pitched a one-hitter for his third consecutive shutout. Over the last two months of the season, Bender won eight of nine decisions to go with a 1.30 ERA. Despite his hot finish, he would not pitch in the majors again until making a single appearance in 1925.

It might not have been quite as good as what the Giants had done the year before, but on May 12th, the White Sox started a sixteen-game stretch in which they allowed only seventeen runs. Eddie Cicotte led the way. From early May to his first start of June, he allowed only three runs (two of them earned) in 66 2/3 innings.

On August 22nd, the Pirates and Robins played the longest game to that point in National League history, one that didn't end until Jim Hickman scored all the way from second on a force out in the bottom of the twenty-second inning. Relief pitcher Elmer Jacobs took the loss despite throwing sixteen consecutive scoreless innings, dropping his record to 4-16. Pittsburgh's Carson Bigbee became the first major league player with as many as eleven at-bats in a game and took advantage of those opportunities to collect six hits. On the Robins, both Hickman and Hi Myers had five hits apiece, the second-straight five-hit performance for Myers.

The game was the fourth straight extra-inning affair for the Pirates, who played a total of 59 innings. The string ended on a strange note. The record-setting game was scheduled to be the first of a double-header, but by the time Hickman ended the game with his daring base-running, it was nearly six o'clock. Despite that, umpire Bill Klem insisted that the two teams take the field and start the second game. I'm not sure what he thought would happen, but after two innings he finally saw (or perhaps could no longer see) the handwriting on the wall, and called it off.41

The Tigers ended 1917 with a double-header in Philadelphia. It had been a long season and the games weren't going to have any affect on either team's place in the standings, so when their starting pitcher, George Cunningham, ran into trouble trying to hold onto a five-run lead in the bottom of the ninth inning, no one on Detroit's bench felt like making a move. There was still only one man out by the time the Athletics scored the winning run (their twelfth of the game), giving rookie pitcher Dave Keefe his first major league victory.

On May 9th, the White Sox defeated the Browns, 4-2 salvaging a split of their six game series. It was the thirteenth time the two teams had played in the first month of the season. Over the next sixteen weeks, they would play each other just once, another 4-2 Chicago victory on May 29th, and the 92 days between that game and their next meeting on August 29th is tied for the fifth longest such gap in the history of an eight-team league. Here is the list:

Gap    First       Last       Teams
115 1900- 5- 1  1900- 8-24 CHI N STL N
108 1903- 4-22  1903- 8- 8 BOS N PHI N
 95 1903- 5- 2  1903- 8- 5 BOS A PHI A
 95 1903- 5- 2  1903- 8- 5 NY  A WAS A
 92 1917- 5-29  1917- 8-29 STL A CHI A
 92 1930- 5-27  1930- 8-27 CHI A CLE A
 91 1917- 5-30  1917- 8-29 DET A CLE A
 90 1927- 7- 3  1927-10- 1 STL A CHI A

In 1903, the Braves opened the season with a six-game series with the Phillies and then played them only once until wrapping up their season series with twelve games in seven days from September 2nd to 8th.


On Sunday, July 21, 1918 major league baseball teams played what many believed would be their final game of the year. "Season Ends in Cleveland," read one headline in the New York Times the next day42. This turned out to be premature, however, and baseball was permitted to continue into the beginning of September. As it turned out, the extra six weeks of baseball didn't affect the pennant winners, as both the Cubs and Red Sox were able to maintain their leads in each league, but it did affect the leaders in many statistical categories. Both leagues' home run leaders on July 21st, for example, the Cards' Walton Cruise and the Red Sox's Babe Ruth, failed to homer for the remainder of the season, Cruise being overtaken by 37 year-old Gavvy Cravath and Ruth falling into a tie for the league lead with ex-teammate Tillie Walker of the Philadelphia Athletics.

After winning 24 games for the second-place Red Sox the year before, left-handed pitcher Babe Ruth was perhaps the biggest story in baseball in 1918, but more for what he did with his bat than his arm. Boston had already lost outfielder Duffy Lewis to the war effort, and after Ruth's home run and double in a 5-4 loss to the Yankees on May 4th had raised his batting average to .438, manager Ed Barrow decided to have his young pitcher replace slumping first-baseman Dick Hoblitzell in the lineup on May 6th. It was Ruth's first experience playing a position other than pitcher, and he enjoyed himself, homering in his first two games. In early June, he hit home runs in four consecutive games, and by the end of the month was leading the league with eleven circuit clouts (in only 144 at-bats), and for the first (but certainly not the last) time in his career, had people talking about a possible home run record.43

Speaking of records, when Ruth homered in four consecutive games it was reported as a record, breaking the previous mark credited to the Yankees' Ray Caldwell, also a pitcher, who had homered in three consecutive games in June, 1915.44 But Ruth had only tied the mark originally set by Bill Bradley in 1902, who had hit for the distance in four straight games from May 21st to May 24th.

While Ruth was becoming the talk of the league with his batting exploits, he was largely absent from the mound. After winning his fourth game of the season on May 15th, Ruth made only three starts over the next ten weeks. He complained to his manager about being expected to both pitch and play regularly in the field, but starting on July 29th, he did both for the rest of the season. He pitched extremely well down the stretch, winning seven of nine starts and throwing 82 innings in little more than a month, but his hitting suffered. Here are his hitting stats both before and after July 19th:

               G  AB   R   H  2B  3B  HR  BB  SO HBP  SH  SB   AVG   OBP   SLG
To July 19    60 199  41  66  20  10  11  34  37   0   3   2  .332  .429  .698
Afterwards    35 118   9  29   6   1   0  25  21   2   1   4  .246  .386  .314

As late as July 25th, Ruth was leading or tied for the league lead in doubles, triples and home runs.

Ruth's problem with his manager came to a head in early July and he was fined and briefly left the team.45 He returned on July 4th, but by the end of the day, the Red Sox were in third place, a game behind the Yankees. Ruth went on an offensive tear after that, with thirteen extra-base hits (but no home runs) in two weeks, and the team got great starting pitching from Carl Mays, Sad Sam Jones and Bullet Joe Bush in winning fifteen of their next eighteen games, nine of them by shutout, to build a commanding lead.

The Cubs made the biggest off-season acquisition, sending $50,000 and two second-line players to the Phillies for star right-hander Pete Alexander and catcher Bill Killefer, only to see Alexander depart for the military after only three starts. Despite that, their staff, led by Hippo Vaughn, Lefty Tyler (another off-season pickup) and Claude Hendrix, was the best in the senior circuit. They also got a significant upgrade at shortstop, replacing Chuck Wortman (who had hit .174 with a .450 OPS in 1917) with rookie Charlie Hollocher, who led the league in hits and was second in on-base percentage, and they overcame a fast start by the Giants, winners of eighteen of their first nineteen games, to take their first pennant since capturing four of five under Frank Chance from 1906 to 1910.

In the World Series, the Cubs decided to go with a two-man rotation. Both Hippo Vaughn and Lefty Tyler made three starts and pitched brilliantly, giving up an average of only a single earned run per game. Despite that, Chicago lost the series in six games. The heroes for the Red Sox were Carl Mays and Babe Ruth, who each won two games. Ruth, after a season noted for his accomplishments at the plate, made only two token appearances as an outfielder, but didn't permit a run until he had shut out the Cubs for sixteen frames. Over his career, Ruth pitched 31 World Series innings and only allowed a run in the first and last of them. This mark of 29 consecutive scoreless innings in the Fall Classic eclipsed the mark of 28 set by Christy Mathewson in 1905 and 1911 and wouldn't be broken until Whitey Ford held the Pirates, Reds and Giants scoreless for 33 straight innings from 1960 to 1962.

Ruth did hit a two-run triple in game four, making him the only member of the winning team with more than a single RBI in the series. There weren't any hitting stars on the Cubs either, and both of the teams' combined number of hits (69) and runs scored (19) are record lows for a six-game series.

Probably the year's top single-game offensive performance was turned in by (who else?) Babe Ruth, who hit a single, three doubles and a triple in the Red Sox's 4-3 extra-inning loss to the Senators on May 9th. It was the first of three games in his career with four extra-base hits. It was also the last time a pitcher had four extra-base hits in a game. The last pitcher with three was Micah Owings in 2007.

Rookie Cliff Heathcote was playing in only his sixth major league game when he hit for the cycle in the Cardinals' 19-inning 8-8 tie with the Phillies. He entered the game without a career extra-base hit, so the cycle represented his first major league double, triple and home run. The fewest career extra-base hits for a players hitting for the cycle since then is one, by Fred Lewis in 2007 and two, by Gary Ward in 1980.

No player in the NL hit more than one home run in a game in 1918. It was part of the second longest stretch for a league without a multi-homer game. The five longest:

                  Start                          End 
League     Date      Player               Date     Player
    NL   6-17-1876   George Hall        6-28-1879  John O'Rourke
    NL   5-16-1917   William Fischer    7- 1-1919  Rabbit Maranville
    AL   8-22-1907   Heinie Wagner      7-15-1909  Ty Cobb
    NL   9-19-1906   Cy Seymour         7-27-1908  Tim Jordan
    NL   9-21-1880   Harry Stovey       7-24-1882  Silver Flint

Actually, the Giants' Benny Kauff did have a two-homer game during that drought. It came during the 1917 World Series.

On April 22nd, Eddie Collins played in his 472nd consecutive game, reportedly tying the mark set by Sam Crawford from 1913 to 1916.46 He broke the mark four days later, but the streak ended at 478 when he missed the game on May 3rd. On that date, however, the player who would supposedly set the new mark was already more than halfway on his way. The Phillies Fred Luderus, whose streak started on June 2, 1916, broke Collins' record on August 3, 191947 and by the time he missed the opening game of the 1920 season, the new standard was 533 games. Except it wasn't. The record holder in 1918 and 1919 was not Crawford, Collins or Luderus, but George Pinkney, the Brooklyn third-baseman, who played in 577 consecutive games from 1886 to 1890. I'm not sure when his record became officially recognized, but by the time Everett Scott, tied Luderus in 1920, Pinkney was credited with having the longest streak.48 One of the things that may have contributed to Pinkney's record being overlooked was the fact that in 1889, he played in only 138 of Brooklyn's 140 games. But the two games he apparently missed were unplayed forfeits on June 24th and September 8th.

Which would be the end of the story, except that in 1920 Pinkney didn't hold the record either. It turns out that there was another overlooked streak, this one by Steve Brodie from October 2, 1891 to July 27, 1897 that reached 731 games before it ended. This streak wasn't recognized for two reasons. First of all, Brodie had been mistakenly credited with playing 130 instead of 131 games in 1895. And secondly, Baltimore also had an unplayed forfeit that year.49 I'm not sure when Brodie's streak was eventually discovered, but when Gus Suhr broke his streak in 1936, it was said that he surpassed Eddie Brown's National League mark of 618 consecutive games played from 1924 to 1928. By the way, one interesting thing about Eddie Brown is that his entire career only lasted 790 games, or little more than a season longer than his streak did.

The Cubs swept the Cards in a double-header on July 4th, winning both games 1-0. Charlie Deal knocked in the run in each game. There have only been two occasions since when a player has knocked in all of his team's runs during a double-header sweep. Joe Pepitone knocked in all the runs during the Yankees' 3-1 and 1-0 victories over the Angels on May, 18, 1969, and Tony Perez accounted for all six runs in the Reds' 4-3 and 2-0 sweep of the Cards on May 14, 1972.

Ty Cobb had a slow start in 1918 and well into June was hitting under .300. But on June 22nd, he started a 36-game stretch during which he hit over .500 and ended the season with a .383 batting average. It was the middle of a remarkably consistent three-year period that saw Cobb lead the major leagues with averages of .383, .382 and .384. Ed Roush came very close to leading the National League each of those years as well, only missing the 1918 title to Zach Wheat in a very tight race. Roush was only a few points behind the leader when his father was seriously injured and he missed the last six games of the season to return home.50

An unusual fielding play by Roush in April may have ended up costing him the batting title. In the top of the eighth inning of the April 29th game between the Reds and the Cards, Roush momentarily juggled a fly ball hit to center field in the top of the eighth inning. Bert Niehoff, the runner on third, apparently scored after the catch but was ruled out by umpire Hank O'Day because, while he had waited to leave the bag until after Rouse had initially touched the ball, Niehoff had not waited until the ball was secure before heading for home. The Cards protested the call and league president John Tener ruled in their favor, causing the game (and its statistics) to be thrown out and replayed at a later date.51 Roush had two hits in three at-bats in the disallowed game.52 When it was replayed as the second game of the August 11th double-header, Roush got only one hit in four at-bats.

And that doesn't even take into account the Robins' successful protest53 of their June 3rd game with the Cardinals that wiped out their 15-12 loss along with an 0-5 performance by Zach Wheat (along with a five-hit game by Marty Kavanagh, which would have raised his average during his short time with the Cards from .182 to .255).54 Now obviously we can't take this analysis too seriously, since many things were affected by the successful protest and there is no reason to think that the rest of the season would have played out exactly the same way, but the addition of the April 29th game and the deletion of the second game of the August 11th double-header would have left Roush with a .336 batting average, one point higher than Wheat's.

Billy Southworth had failed to hit in a 1915 trail with the Indians, but he returned to the majors at the beginning of July and made an immediate impression, with seven hits in his first two games and a .492 batting average during his first two weeks. After a brief slump, he bounced back strong to finish with a .341 average in 64 games. I've always wondered about the difference in the quality of play between the first and second halves of the 1918 season. It is well-known that for most of World War Two, the two leagues fielded much less talent than they had both before and after the war. But with a steady stream of veteran players leaving the major leagues in the second half of the season (Southworth, for example, was replacing the departed Casey Stengel), I wonder just how much World War One affected the game during the summer of 1918.

Rookie Hank Thormahlen relieved Bob McGraw with no one out in the top of the first inning and finished the 9-4 loss to the Senators on April 26th. For McGraw, it was his first and only appearance of the year, one that left him with an ERA that is usually shown as infinity in the encyclopedias but is actually undefined, as he walked all four batters to face him and they all came around to score.

Thormahlen didn't appear in his next game again until May 9th, relieving Allen Russell, again with no out in the first inning, and again completing the game. This time, however, he pitched nine shutout innings for his first major league win. He was moved to the starting rotation after that and pitched two shutouts before finishing his month's work with a three-hitter on May 27th, a fifth-inning run in that game breaking his 37-inning scoreless streak going all the way back to the last inning of his relief appearance in April.

Thormahlen, however, had only the second longest scoreless-inning streak of the month. Walter Johnson's string of zeroes reached forty before it ended in his last start of May, and included three shutouts, one of them an eighteen-inning 1-0 decision over Lefty Williams and the White Sox. It was only the beginning of an incredible year for Johnson, one that is often overlooked because of the shortened season. Apart from a much lower ERA, his 1918 season appeared much like his previous year, with the same 23 wins and the same 326 innings. But this time around, he accomplished all that without making more than one token appearance in September. August was a pretty average month for him, with five victories and 75 innings pitched. If the season had not ended prematurely and he had been able to put up those numbers over the last month, he would have finished the year with 28 wins and 400 innings pitched.55

Johnson started 29 games and finished them all, including nine that went into extra innings. In addition to the eighteen-inning game mentioned above, he also pitched another eighteen-inning game, as well as ones going fifteen, fourteen and thirteen innings. Including his relief appearances, Johnson went 8-7 in 54 1/3 extra innings pitched that year. Here are the leaders since 1918 in extra-innings pitched:

Name               Year   IP     W   L
Walter Johnson     1918   54.1   8   7
Dick Radatz        1963   37     8   4
Satchel Paige      1952   36     6   3
Dick Selma         1970   31.1   6   4
Ron Perranoski     1969   29     4   2
Tug McGraw         1972   29     3   3
Rich Gossage       1977   28.2   6   4
George Mogridge    1918   28.1   5   4
John Hiller        1974   28.1   7   5

It was a year for marathons. On July 17th, the Cubs beat the Phillies 2-1 in twenty-one innings, coming within one of the NL record set the year before. Turner Barber, pinch-hitting for Rollie Zeider, who had been hitless in eight at-bats, singled to open the bottom of the twenty-first and then came around to score on Max Flack's fifth hit of the game. On August 1st, the Pirates and the Braves also went twenty-one innings. This game was scoreless until the Pirates broke through for two runs in the top of the last inning and made a hard-luck loser out of Art Nehf, who went the distance for Boston.

Two days later, Gene Packard pitched a game that I'm sure he felt would never end. Pitching a one-hit shutout and staked to an eleven-run lead through six innings, the Cards' pitcher allowed fourteen hits and twelve runs before Lee Meadows came on to get the last two outs of the game and preserve a 16-12 win.

Braves holdout Dick Rudolph didn't make his first start until June 10th, but it was worth waiting for: a one-hit shutout victory over the Reds. Others didn't fare as well in their debuts. Bill Bailey hadn't pitched in the majors since 1915 (1912 if you don't count the Federal League), when he came out of the bullpen with his Tigers trailing the Indians by a run in the bottom of the eighth inning of their game on July 29th. It was a rude welcome back, as Cleveland turned seven hits and three walks into ten runs, leaving Bailey with a 90.00 ERA at the end of the day.

Veteran right-hander Roy Mitchell returned to the big leagues for the first time in four years, but pitched poorly in two early August starts for the White Sox and was dispatched to the Reds. He turned into a late season sensation in his new home, however, pitching 27 1/3 innings before giving up his first run, winning all four of his decisions, and finishing with a 0.74 ERA.

Mike Regan was another Reds' pitcher who finished strongly that summer. After failing to retire a batter in his second straight game on July 7th, his ERA stood at 6.19. But three days later, he pitched a two-hit shutout, starting a season-ending streak that would see him allow only four earned runs in 43 2/3 innings, including back-to-back shutouts to close out his year. Despite their great finishes, neither Mitchell nor Regan would have much of a future in the major leagues. Regan pitched only once more in relief the following May, while Mitchell made a handful of appearances including one more start before leaving the Reds and the majors for good the following July.

It was not unusual during this era for pitchers to start both ends of a double-header. It was, however, not common for a pitcher to do it twice in one season. Rookie Mule Watson was a mid-season acqusition for the Athletics and didn't make his first start until July 4th. Despite pitching only two months for Connie Mack's team, Watson started nineteen games and pitched 141 2/3 innings. He was first called on to pitch a double-header on July 21st. He didn't pitch particularly well in the first game, giving up twelve hits in a 3-2 eleven-inning loss to the Indians, and did even worse in the second contest, when his team's three-run rally in the top of the last inning allowed him to escape with a 5-5 tie. At the end of August, he was once again called on for double-duty. This time around he pitched even worse in the opener, a 6-1 loss to Babe Ruth and the Red Sox, but he was brilliant in the finale, throwing the greatest game of his career, a one-hit shutout over the eventual World Champions. Watson became the first player to pitch more than one twin-bill in a season since Joe McGinnity did it three times for the 1903 Giants. The first double-header was part of a scheduled one-day road trip and it wouldn't surprise me if Watson was called upon to start both games so the team could save money by taking only one pitcher along.56

John Peters was not making his major league debut (he had played a single game for the Tigers more than three years earlier), but he sure seemed to have the jitters in this first and only appearance of 1918. Starting behind the plate of the May 16th game between the Indians and Athletics, Peters committed three first-inning errors before he was injured following his fourth error and had to be removed from the game.57 He was hardly the only sloppy fielder that day, as the two teams combined for fourteen errors in the game. Only two of the eleven runs scored that day were earned.

Jake Pitler probably wondered what he had to do to get another chance when, in his final major league appearance, he entered the game as a pinch-runner, stole second, stole third and then scored. Actually, his day looked a lot more impressive than it really was. When he entered the game, the Pirates were losing 6-2 in the bottom of the ninth inning and it was the fashion of the times to let runners go wild in these situations as long as they didn't represent the tying or winning run. I'll have more to say on this aspect of the game later.

In one of the greatest almost-comebacks in history, the Phillies, trailing 10-0 heading into the top of the ninth, rallied for nine runs on July 6th. Reds' starter Pete Schneider took a one-hit shutout into the last frame, only to walk the first (and only) six batters to face him in that inning. He ended the game allowing a season-high thirteen walks.

Meaningless season-ending games were often played as comedies during this era, and the Senators and Athletics completed their season with just such a farce on September 2nd. Here is a description of Nick Altrock's eighth-inning "home run":

"Nick made the freakiest home run in the history of baseball when he got his turn at bat with but two out in the eighth. McAvoy took Watson's place in the box, and did everything but hit the ball for the comedian. Nick fouled off two and then hit one that didn't have enough speed to break a pane of glass over first base. Watson made no effort to field it, and Jamieson turned a couple of somersaults before he retrieved the ball. He threw to second and Nick neglected the formality of touching the middle sack or the far corner either. Catcher Perkins made no effort to take the throw at the plate, and when Billy Evans called Nick safe it went for a home run to send the crowd into near hysterics."58

At thirteen days shy of his forty-second birthday, Altrock became the second-oldest American League player to homer, trailing only Deacon McGuire, who was more than forty-three years old when he hit a legitimate home run on July 25, 1907. The current holder of this record is Jack Quinn, who was nearly forty-seven when he hit one out on June 27, 1930. The NL (and major league) record is held by Julio Franco, who hit his final homer on May 4, 2007 at the age of forty-eight (and 254 days).

There are two discrepancies I wanted to mention. Officially, Merlin Kopp played the entire game on April 26th in left field with only a single plate-appearance (a single), despite the fact that the players hitting around him in the batting order got up five times. He actually walked four times in addition to his hit, and those walks, although not credited officially, represent his career high. And on May 24th, the Red Sox's Sam Agnew is officially credited with a double without either an at-bat or a hit. Wally Schang, who replaced Agnew in the fifth inning, should have been given credit for the double instead.


As the 1918 season came to a close, professional baseball at all levels prepared to shut down for the duration of the war. There was some talk about organizing sectional semi-pro teams that would play only on the weekends, but there was a general consensus that there should be no major or minor league baseball until hostilities ceased in Europe. 59 With the end of the war that fall, however, all that changed. By December, the War Department had given the major leagues permission to return to business as usual in 1919.60 Well, not quite as usual, since both leagues decided on a shortened schedule of 140 games.61 Rather than a response to the challenges of getting their players back from the military and geared back up for a full slate of games, the shortened season was intended to be a permanent solution to the problems of poor April weather, too many summer double-headers, and a late World Series. Instead, it proved unpopular with owners, who discovered that having fewer games actually meant making less money. During July, National League officials met and discussed the possibility of extending the current season into October in order to restore the season to 154 games, but decided against it.62

You have to wonder how the history of baseball would have been altered had a different team taken the 1919 AL pennant. What if the Yankees had been able to maintain the early pace that had them in first place as late as July 8th? Or what if Cleveland or Detroit had been able to mount an effective late-season charge? I do not mean to suggest that the gambling problems that afflicted baseball would have disappeared if gamblers had not been able to fix the 1919 World Series. I think it simply would have come to a head later. But it is likely that a later crisis would have produced a different Judge Landis and a different (but no less prominent) set of Eight (or Nine or Ten) Men Out.

As it turned out, however, White Sox pitchers Ed Cicotte and Lefty Williams, combined with best offense in baseball, led by Shoeless Joe Jackson and Eddie Collins, proved too much for the rest of the league to handle. By the time they swept the Yankees in a double-header on September 17th, they had a seven and a half game lead over Cleveland with only nine games to play. They won only two of those remaining games, but all that did was make the pennant race appear closer than it really was. On September 24th, their dramatic come-from-behind win over the Browns, coupled with the Indians' loss in Detroit, gave them their second pennant in three years and punched their ticket to the World Series.

Few World Champions in history have gotten less respect than the 1919 Reds. After finding themselves five games behind the Giants on June 5th, Cincinnati dominated the league the rest of the year, winning 76 of their last 104 games, a .731 pace (which, over a 154-game season, would have produced 112 wins). Despite their superior record (they won eight more games than the White Sox), a pitching staff that allowed a major league low 2.86 runs a game, and the second-best offense in their league, the Reds entered the Series as decided underdogs. The Junior Circuit had won eight of the previous nine championships, after all, and Chicago was expected to continue this trend. In addition to the NL's recent history of failure in the Fall Classic, the Reds didn't exactly have a tradition of success. Not only had they never won an NL pennant before, they had never finished higher than third in the league.63

So a Cincinnati victory should have been a vindication of their team and league. Instead, they were denied that opportunity and their triumph in 1919 turned into a story of treachery and greed, with the Reds often pictured as bystanders in the drama. Apart from the Eight Men Out, the most famous performance in the World Series was the one turned in by Chicago's Dickey Kerr, who was praised as the hero of the contest because of his victories in games three and six. Well, the Reds had heroes as well. They included Jimmy Ring, and Hod Eller who pitched back to back shutouts (supposedly when all of the White Sox were trying), and Pat Duncan and Edd Roush, who combined to knock in fifteen runs in the eight games. Of course, it's impossible to know what would have happened that October had both teams been trying to win, but I think we should be willing to give the Reds the benefit of the doubt.

Apart from the pennant races and World Series, the biggest story in baseball once again centered around the slugging exploits of the Red Sox's Babe Ruth. It was a story that was a little slow developing. Ruth hit well during the first few months of the season, but with less power than he had shown during the early going a year before. By July 4th, he had hit only seven home runs. This was enough to lead the league, but it was not close to a record-setting pace. Gavvy Cravath was leading the majors with nine, and Ruth at the time was only one round-tripper ahead of Roger Peckinpaugh, the Yankee shortstop who hadn't homered in either 1917 or 1918. (Peckinpaugh would hit only one more that year, on August 2nd.)

During Ruth's power surge the previous June, sportswriter Ernest J. Lanigan wrote an article downplaying the slugger's chances for a record, arguing that Ruth had always hit most of his circuit clouts in the early months of the season. At the time Lanigan was writing, Ruth was 23 years old and, while it is always risky generalizing about the habits of a player that young, Lanigan looked like a genius in 1918. 1919, however, was a very different story.64

On July 5th, Ruth had the first multi-homer game of his career and less than two weeks later, he did it again. By the time July was over, he had sixteen circuit clouts, tying the American League record set in 1902 by Socks Seybold. Two weeks later, Ruth went deep again and the record was his alone. Next up: the major league mark of 27 held by the White Stockings' Ned Williamson in 1884. All but two of Williamson's homers that year had been hit at the friendly confines of Lake Front Park, which featured a right field fence less than 200 feet away. The team only played in the park for two years. In 1883, balls hit over that fence were ground rule doubles, but the next year, the rule had been changed to give the batter a home run. As a result, Williamson was able to set a major league for the most doubles one year and homers the next.

That mark appeared out of reach until the Babe hit four in three games in late August, leaving him with twenty-three. With a week to go in the season, he hit a dramatic game-winning home run in the bottom of the ninth off of Lefty Williams to tie Williamson, and four days later, Ruth set the record with a game-tying ninth-inning shot. He wrapped up his campaign with his twenty-ninth four-bagger on the last day of the season. A month later, one sportswriter offered his opinion on what the future held for the Babe:

"It is figured that now that he has established a record of twenty-nine home runs for a single season - a record which may never be endangered - Ruth will cease swinging for the circuit clouts, with a resulting increase in his general batting figures."65

Here's how Ruth did both before and after July 4th:

               G  AB   R   H  2B  3B  HR  BB  SO HBP  SH  SB   AVG   OBP   SLG
To July 4     55 177  40  56  12   7   7  37  19   2   1   0  .316  .440  .582
Afterwards    75 255  63  83  22   5  22  64  39   4   3   7  .325  .467  .710

Unlike Williamson, Ruth was not helped by his home park in 1918 or 1919, hitting only nine of his forty home runs those two years at Fenway Park. At the time of his sale to the Yankees prior to the 1920 season, here was Ruth's career record in both his old and new home parks:

               G  AB   R   H  2B  3B  HR  BB  SO HBP  SH  SB   AVG   OBP   SLG
Fenway Park  193 518 102 162  47  17  11 104  62   3   8   7  .313  .430  .533
Polo Grounds  28  95  21  31   6   0  10  15  12   1   1   1  .326  .423  .705

His teammates weren't partial to the long ball at home or on the road in either season, hitting only four each year.

Although overshadowed by Ruth, Gavvy Cravath made his own noise with the long ball in 1919. He led the NL with twelve home runs, despite having only 214 at-bats. It was the fewest at-bats for a league-leader since Fred Treacey tied for the National Association lead with four round trippers in only 124 at-bats in 1871. It was the sixth time that Cravath had led (or tied for the league lead) in homers, breaking the mark he had shared with Harry Stovey, who had done it five times from 1880 to 1891. Cravath's record was primarily a product of Baker Bowl, his home park. Here are his home and road splits in 1919:

        G  AB   R   H  2B  3B  HR  BB  SO HBP  SH  SB   AVG   OBP   SLG
Home   42  98  21  39   9   1  10  15  11   1   2   3  .398  .482  .816
Away   41 117  13  34   9   4   2  20  10   1   2   5  .291  .399  .487

And the year before, he had hit all of his league-leading eight home runs at home. Of the 117 homers he hit while playing for the Philadelphia Phillies, 92 of them were hit at Baker Bowl.

Other hitting highlights included ten consecutive hits by Ed Konetchy on June 28th, June 29th and July 1st (tying the mark set by Ed Delahanty and Jake Gettman in 1897), and an AL record of 46 hits in two consecutive games by the Red Sox on September 5th and 6th.

The Red Sox probably thought they were on their way to a record when they opened the top of the first inning with five straight hits on August 21st. The first four knocked out Indians' starter Hi Jasper. But after giving up a hit to the first batter he faced, Cleveland reliever Elmer Myers (and then Tony Faeth) held Boston hitless over the remainder of the game. In the bottom of the first, Boston starter Herb Pennock also failed to retire a batter. This has happened nine times since, most recently on September 21, 1989 when Dennis Rasmussen and Jack Armstrong each allowed his first five batters to reach base and score in the Padres' win over the Reds.

At the beginning of June, Cubs owner Charlie Weeghman might have been wondering about the wisdom of his $50,000 investment in Pete Alexander. His star pitcher had made only three starts with his new team before being drafted in 1918, and after more than five weeks of the next season, was still looking for his first victory or complete game. On June 2nd, he seemed to find his old magic, pitching a shutout against the Pirates, and once again was the best pitcher in the league. Here is his record both before and after the beginning of June:

                 G  GS  CG SHO  IP     H   R  ER  BB  SO   W   L   ERA
April and May    7   5   0   0  34    39  19  16  15  20   0   4  4.24
June Onward     23  22  20   9 201   141  32  29  23 101  16   7  1.16

In the White Sox's pennant-clinching win on September 24th, Ed Cicotte left the game on the short end of a 5-2 score, failing to win his thirtieth game of the season. He had one more chance, pitching the first two innings of the final regular season game, a tuneup for the upcoming World Series. He left the game at the end of the second inning with a 2-1 lead. Under the scoring practices of the time, Cicotte would have no doubt been credited with the win had Chicago held the lead. Roy Wilkinson replaced him on the mound and things looked up for Chicago. After all, Wilkinson came into the game having made four major league appearances, covering sixteen innings, and had yet to allow a run. His first career start a little more than two weeks earlier had resulted in a five-hit shutout for his first win. But he had little on this day, giving up six runs and Cicotte's lead in his first two innings. So his teammate had to settle for a league-leading 29 wins. But it wasn't for lack of trying (or opportunity).

On May 4th, the Washington Senators were beating the Athletics 11-3 at the end of the seventh when manager Clark Griffith decided to give starting pitcher Walter Johnson the rest of the day off. When Johnson left the game early, it marked the first time he had been relieved in a game since September 3, 1917, a period covering 37 starts and 12 relief appearances (a total of 409 innings). Johnson, was removed from his next start as well, this time trailing the Red Sox 3-0 at the end of the sixth inning, before completing his last 25 starts and 9 relief appearances of the year

In the first game of their July 7th double-header with the Giants, the Phillies stole seven bases in the bottom of the ninth inning, an inning that began with the home team trailing 10-2.66 This was not an isolated example. The Athletics were losing 14-1 going into the last inning of their July 26th game with the Senators when Merlin Kopp singled with one out, stole second and third, and scored on Fred Thomas' double. Thomas then proceeded to steal third. On August 20th, the Braves stole four bases at the end of the game while losing 10-1. And with his team down ten on September 6th, Buck Weaver stole second, third and home in the bottom of the ninth to make the final score a more respectable 11-2. While much of the way baseball was played in 1919 would be familiar to modern fans, this aspect of the game seems crazy today. It sure seems as if there was a gentleman's agreement to let losing teams pad their stats and score a few runs at the tail end of a blowout. Defensive indifference, the rule denying a player a stolen base in these situations, was instituted in 1920, perhaps in response to these displays.

And it wasn't only losing teams that ran up their stolen base totals when the game was out of reach. On May 15th, the Reds and Robins battled to a scoreless tie through the first twelve innings. In the top of the thirteenth, however, things got out of hand. The visiting Reds finally broke through against a tiring Al Mamaux, and by the time Heinie Groh singled in Greasy Neale with two outs, nine runs had scored and victory seemed assured. But just to make sure, Groh stole second, where he scored that all important ninth insurance run on Edd Roush's single. No one acted as if this was out of the ordinary. Mamaux didn't attempt to retaliate against the Reds (he was probably too exhausted anyway). It seems as if they were simply playing with a different unwritten rulebook in 1919.

Speaking of unwritten rules, when the Senators visited Chicago from August 20th to August 22nd, Walter Johnson was ill and couldn't pitch. Helped by the star pitcher's absence, the White Sox swept the series, giving them a lead of five games over the second-place Tigers. In order to equalize matters, the Senators' Clark Griffith announced that he would hold Johnson out of the series with Detroit in September, just to make things fair.67

The Athletics, who looked to be on the verge of respectability at the end of the previous year, took a major step backward in 1919 and lost 104 games in the shortened season. They were hurt by the ineffectiveness of Scott Perry, one of the surprise stars of the league in 1918, who struggled into August, winning only four games against seventeen losses before leaving the team with seven weeks to go in the season.68 Philadelphia lost 23 games in their best month (not counting their 2-3 record in April), and finished with a 6-20 September mark, despite playing all but two of their games at home.

That month was pretty much of an audition for the next season. Fifteen different A's players made their major league debuts in September. For the sake of comparison, no other team in the league that month had more than six debuts. On September 9th, four of their starting players were appearing in their first major league game, and two others were playing in the second and third games. The fifteen debuts tied the major league mark set originally by the 1915 Athletics, and the closest any team has come since was the 1963 Colt .45s with twelve (and half of those debuts came in Houston's season-ending three-game series with the Mets).

One tipoff that Athletics' manager Connie Mack wasn't focused on his teams' won-loss record that year occurred on August 17th. They were in Chicago and losing 3-1 when rain threatened to end the game before the visitors could bat in the fifth inning. Normally a team in this situation would stall, hoping for a cancellation instead of a loss. But it was a good-sized Sunday crowd and, needing their share of the gate receipts more than the decision, Mack had his players hustling so the game could become official.69

Toward the end of the season, there were two other quick games of note. On September 21st, the Robins beat the Reds in only 55 minutes. In the game, Slim Sallee threw only 65 pitches, which was thought to be a contender for the major league record, eclipsing Christy Mathewson's low of 69 pitches.70 And one week later, the Giants and Phillies played the first game of their double-header in only 51 minutes, believed to be the fastest nine-inning game on record.

The marathon of the year took place on April 30th, when the Robins and Phillies battled to a twenty-inning 9-9 tie. The game looked to be on its way to a decision when the Robins scored three runs in the top of the nineteenth inning off of Joe Oeschger, but his teammates took him off the hook by rallying for three of their own in the bottom half against Burleigh Grimes. Oeschger would pitch twenty-six innings in a game exactly one year and one day later and is the only pitcher during the Retrosheet Era to pitch twenty or more innings in a game twice.

On May 26th, the Red Sox-Indians game ended with both teams' pitchers hitting cleanup. Boston's starting pitcher Babe Ruth, however, was not one of them. He hit in the ninth spot in the order, moving to left field in the third inning. He would only start only one more game hitting last in his career, on June 5th, a game he left in the third inning with a knee injury.71

Three days later, the Red Sox's Carl Mays would get the best of the Athletics, winning 7-1. Opposing Mays for Philadelphia that day was Tom Rogers, who in 1916, while pitching for Nashville of the Southern Association, threw a pitch that killed former major-leaguer John Dodge. Mays, of course, would throw the pitch that would kill Ray Chapman in 1920.

And finally, one of the year's most shocking stories occurred on August 24th, when the Indians' Ray Caldwell was "felled" by a thunderbolt in the final inning of their game against the Athletics. According to the article, he "recovered quickly and resumed pitching."72 It was his first start for Cleveland after being released by the Red Sox and the jolt seemed to do him good. He pitched well for his new team for the rest of the year, including a no-hitter against the Yankees on September 10th.


A host of people worked on making these boxscores available to baseball researchers. The team doing the digitization work included Dave Lamoureaux, Greg Antolick, Tom Bradley, Clem Comly, Mike Grahek, Howard Johnson, Ryan Jones, Walter LeConte, Dan Lee, Jack Myers, Ron Weaver and Ron Wargo,

Pete Palmer and Trent McCotter helped in a variety of ways, and David Vincent provided the home runs allowed data for the pitchers.


1"Giants Unable to Oust Braves," The New York Times. September 8, 1914. Page 8.

2You might be wondering why the pennant was clinched after the games of September 29th since the Giants could have finished the year with a 88-66 record by winning their remaining games while the Braves ended that day with exactly 88 wins. The reason is that in 1914 teams did not have to make up postponed games if the teams involved were not scheduled to meet again, even if those games had an impact on the pennant race. And Boston had a game with the Cardinals that was not going to be played. As a result, had the Braves lost all of their remaining games, they would have finished the year with a 88-65 mark, one half-game better than New York.

3But the Federal League wasn't that far behind the two established circuits, at least according to Clay Davenport's league equivalencies. He rates the 1914 and 1915 Federal League at .93 and .95 of the other two leagues, or about the same as the American Association at their peak (.94).

4Actually, by modern calculations, Tim Keefe had a lower ERA with Troy in 1880. But this could change with future research, since only ten of the 27 runs he allowed that season are currently credited as being earned.

5See page 64 of "The 2007 Complete Baseball Record Book," edited by Steve Gietschier (Chesterfield, MO, American City Business Journals, 2007) for an example of this.

6"A Couple of Mysteries Regarding Most Wild Pitches in an Inning." Society For American Baseball Research, June 2012 Baseball Records Committee newsletter, edited by Lyle Spatz, page 1.

7"Great Fielding Saves Boston Worse Beating," T.H. Murnane. The Boston Daily Globe. May 21, 1914. Page 9. And "Detroit and St. Louis Each Win a Game--Cobb Joins Tigers," The New York Times. June 6, 1914. Page 10.

8To read more about the collapse of the A's, I recommend Norman Macht's "Connie Mack - The Turbulent & Triumphant Years 1915-1931" (Lincoln, Nebraska, University of Nebraska Press, 2012).

9"Slow Fielding is What Really Beat Red Sox," T.H. Murnane. The Boston Daily Globe. April 15, 1915. Pages 1 and 9.

10"It's the Tiger Who Does All the Taming In First Mix With Red Sox," T.H. Murnane. The Boston Daily Globe. September 17, 1915. Pages 1 and 5.

11"Red Sox Win In 12th, 1-0, Cheered On By 40,000," T.H. Murnane. The Boston Daily Globe. September 19, 1915. Pages 1 and 11.

12The lowest league-leading winning percentage during June? .535 - the (23-20) record of the White Sox on June 8, 1908. In May, the mark is .529 - the (18-16) record of the White Sox on May 19, 1974. April is not too interesting, since many teams all had .500 records in the very early days of the season. Note that I am talking about league-leading winning percentages, not the teams leading divisions within the leagues.

13"The Battle That Forged Modern Baseball," Dan Levitt (Lanham, Maryland, Ivan R. Dee, 2012), Chapter 13.

14"Indians Fall Before Johnson, Who Makes a Record Drive Across Wall," Stanley T. Milliken. The Washington Post. May 24, 1915. Page 8.

15"Red Sox March On In Triumph," T. H. Murnane. The Boston Daily Globe. July 22, 1915. Pages 1 and 7.

16"Ten Runs in Ninth Inning." Chicago Daily Tribune. April 26, 1901. Page 6.

17"Williams Starts Belated Rally That Bring Nationals Victory," Stanley T. Milliken. The Washington Post. May 26, 1915. Page 8.

18"Sox Trounce Mackman, 6-4, In Crazy Game," I. E. Sanborn. Chicago Daily Tribune. July 15, 1915. Page 13.

19"Giants Beat Boston in Burlesque Game," Boston Daily Globe. October 8, 1915. Page 7.

20"McGraw, 'Disgusted,' Says Team Disobeyed His Orders - Leaves Field in Fifth Inning," The New York Times. October 4, 1916. Page 12.

21"Red Sox Will Win Series - Fullerton," Hugh S. Fulleron. The New York Times. October 7, 1916. Page 12.

22John McGraw, Charles Alexander. 1988. Page 194.

23"Giants Shatter World Mark for Victories in Row," The New York Times. September 26, 1916. Page 12.

By the way, Arthur Irwin was an interesting figure and baseball history. For more on him, please see the following article.

24"Superbas Blanked Twice by Phillies," The New York Times. September 2, 1916. Page 8.

25"Speaker is Sold to the Indians," The Washington Post. April 9, 1916. Page S1.

26"Matty Beats Miner Brown; First to Cubs," I. E. Sanborn. Chicago Daily Tribune. September 5, 1916. Page 15.

27"Harper Error's Victim; Credit Goes to Gallia," Stanley T. Milliken. The Washington Post. September 3, 1916. Page A1.

28"Noted of Nationals," Stanley T. Milliken. The Washington Post. September 15, 1916. Page 6.

29"Meet Athletics in Five Battles," Stanley T. Milliken. The Washington Post. September 27, 1916. Page 8.

30"Red Sox Show Plenty of 'Pep'," Edward F. Martin. Boston Daily Globe. September 7, 1916. Page 7.

31"Napoleon Lajoie Considers Offers," Los Angeles Times. September 22, 1916. Page III.

32If you define a series as a number of consecutive games played between the same two teams regardless of where the games were played, there have been a lot longer than eight games. The longest was the thirteen games played between the Baltimore Terrapins and the Buffalo Blues of the Federal League that started on July 10, 1914.

33"Spalding's Official Base Ball Guide 1918" (New York City, American Sports Publishing Co., 1918), Page 47.

34"Chicago Mad With Joy Over Victory of Rowland's Team," George A. Robbins. The Sporting News. October 18, 1918. Page 1.

35"Sox Failed to Hold Up League's Class," Henry P. Edwards. The Sporting News. October 25, 1918. Page 1.

36"Collins and the Busher," The Sporting News. December 24, 1914. Page 4.

37"Koob Tames Sox in One Hit Game, 1-0," I. E. Sanborn. The Chicago Daily Tribune. May 6, 1917. Page 1.

38"Scorers Can't Pull in Hits," The Washington Post. July 1, 1917. Page 17.

39"Ruth Let Down With $100 Fine," Boston Daily Globe. July 1, 1917. Page 15.

40If you count no-hitters less than nine innings, the list of shortest spans includes a few from 1884, the shortest being one of forty days from Dick Burns no-hitter on August 26th and Charlie Sweeney's and Henry Boyle's combined five-inning no-hitter on October 5th. This also requires that you count the Union Association as a major league.

41"Robins Make New Long-Game Record," The New York Times. August 23, 1917. Page 15.

42"Season Ends in Cleveland," The New York Times. July 22, 1918. Page 8.

43"Ruth Hasn't Far To Go To Break Record For Home Runs in the American League," The Washington Post. July 2, 1918. Page 8.

44"Ruth Sets Mark With Four Homers in Row," The Washington Post. June 7, 1918. Page 8.

45"Harper Pitches Griffs To 3-0 Victory; Ruth is Fined and Benched By Barrow," The Washington Post. July 3, 1918. Page 8.

46"Collins Equals Record," The New York Times. April 23, 1918. Page 14.

47"Luderus Sets New Record," The New York Times. August 3, 1919. Page 17.

48"Revenge For Johnson Who Blanks Sox, 2-0," The Boston Globe. April 26, 1920. Page 4.

49"History of Consecutive Game Streaks," Lee Allen. "The Sporting News Baseball Guide and Record Book 1960" (St. Louis, Charles C. Spink & Son, 1961), Pages 179-180.

50"Ex-Pitcher of A.L. Blanks Cub Champs, Reds Copping, 5 To 0," Chicago Daily Tribune. August 31, 1918. Page 9.

51"Tener Allows Cardinals' Protest," The Sporting News. May 16, 1918. Page 1.

52"Reds Rally In Ninth," The New York Times. April 30, 1918. Page 14.

53"Brooklyn Protest Upheld," The New York Times. June 16, 1918. Page 28.

54"Dodgers Lose Weird Game," The New York Times. June 4, 1918. Page 10.

55Even with that heavy workload, Johnson did not lead his league in innings pitched. The Athletics Scott Perry did, with 332 1/3, including 87 1/3 innings in August alone.

56The team's game log makes it appear as if the July 21st double-header was the start of long road trip, but they were scheduled to play a two-game series with the Indians on July 22nd and 23rd that was postponed.

57"Macks Get Hectic Game," The New York Times. May 17, 1918. Page 10.

58"Griffs Men Break Even To Finish Third In League Race As Baseball Season Suspends," The Washington Post. September 3, 1918. Page 8.

59"Semipro League Plan Finds Favor In East," J. V. Fitz Gerald. The Washington Post. September 29, 1918. Page 19.

60"Government OK For Major League Baseball," Boston Daily Globe. December 5, 1918. Page 1.

61"War Challenge Is Called By Majors," J. V. Fitz Gerald. The Washington Post. January 17, 1919. Page 10.

62"No Change In League Dates," The Christian Science Monitor. July 18, 1919. Page 16.

63When the were in the American Association, Cincinnati won one pennant (in 1882) and finished second twice (in 1885 and 1887).

64"Ruth's Chances For Record Are Slight," Ernest J. Lanigan. The Hartford Courant. June 16, 1918. Page Z5.

65"With the Four Hundred," Harry A. Williams. Los Angeles Times. November 2, 1919. Page VII.

66Record books and newspaper box scores credit the Phillies with eight stolen bases in that inning, but Hick Cady was officially given one stolen base, not the two reported in the papers. The steal was his first since 1915.

67"Johnson Won't Face Tigers," The New York Times. September 3, 1919. Page 24.

68"Scott Perry Quits Macks," The New York Times. August 19, 1919. Page 14.

69"Hustling Sox Grab Game Before Weather Man Spoils It," James Crusinberry. Chicago Daily Tribune. August 18, 1919. Page 15.

70"Speedy Game Is Won By Dodgers," The New York Times. September 22, 1919. Page 21.

71"Babe Ruth Injured As Sox Win, 2-1," James C. O'Leary. Boston Daily Globe. June 6, 1919. Page 10

72"Three Hits Off Caldwell," The New York Times. August 25, 1919. Page 12